Not much has been released about exactly how Premera got attacked, and certainly nothing from anyone with recognised insider knowledge.
Disclaimer: I worked at Premera in the Information Security team, but it’s so so long ago that any of my internal knowledge is incorrect – so I’ll only talk about those things that I have seen published.
I am, above all, a customer of Premera’s, from 2004 until just a few weeks ago. But I’m a customer with a strong background in Information Security.
Almost everything boils down rather simply to one article as the source of what we know.
February 4, 2015: News stories break about Anthem’s breach (formerly Wellpoint).
January 29, 2015: The date given by Premera as the date when they were first made aware that they’d been attacked.
I don’t think that it’s a coincidence that these dates are so close together. In my opinion, these dates imply that Anthem / Wellpoint found their own issues, notified the network of other health insurance companies, and then published to the news outlets.
As a result of this, Premera recognised the same attack patterns in their own systems.
This suggests that any other health insurance companies attacked by the same group (alleged to be “Deep Panda”) will discover and disclose it shortly.
I’ve kind of driven in the idea that Anthem used to be called Wellpoint, and the reason I’m bringing this out is that a part of the attack documented by ThreatConnect was to create a site called “we11point.com” – that’s “wellpoint.com”, but with the two letter “els” replaced with two “one” digits.
That’s relevant because the ThreatConnect article also called out that there was a web site called “prennera.com” created by the same group.
So, given a domain name similar to that of a site you wish to attack, how would you get full access to the company behind that site?
Here’s just one way you might mount that attack. There are other ways to do this, but this is the most obvious, given the limited information above.
If you’re concerned that I’m telling attackers how to do this, remember that this is obvious stuff. This is already a well known attack strategy, “homograph attacks”. This is what a penetration tester will do if you hire one to test your susceptibility to social engineering.
There’s no vulnerability involved, there’s no particularly obvious technical failing here, it’s just the age-old tactic of giving someone a screen that looks like their logon page, and telling them they’ve failed to logon. I saw this basic form of attack in the eighties, it’s that old.
If you’ve been reading my posts to date, you’ll know that I’m aware that security offence is sexy and exciting, but security defence is really where the clever stuff belongs.
I have a few simple recommendations that I think apply in this case:
Another tack that’s taken by companies is to engage a reputation management company, to register domain names that are homoglyphs to your own (those that look the same in a browser address bar). Or, to file lawsuits that take down such domains when they appear. Whichever is cheaper. My perspective on this is that it costs money, and is doomed to fail whenever a new TLD arises, or your company creates a new brand.
[Not that reputation management companies can’t help you with your domain names, mind you – they can prevent you, for instance, from releasing a product with a name that’s already associated with a domain name owned by another company.]
These three steps are somewhat interdependent, and they may cause a certain degree of inconvenience, but they will prevent exactly the kind of attacks I’ve described. [Yes, there are other potential attacks, but none introduced by the suggested changes]
Last weekend, along with countless employees and ex-employees of Microsoft, Amazon, Expedia, and Premera itself, I received a breach notification signed by Premera’s President & CEO, Jeffrey Roe.
Here’s a few things I think can already be learned from this letter and the available public information:
Whenever I see the phrase “sophisticated cyberattack”, not only am I turned off by the meaningless prefix “cyber”, which seems to serve only to “baffle them with bullshit”, but I’m also convinced that the author is trying to convince me that, hey, this attack was just too amazing and science-fictiony to do anything to stop.
All that does is push me in the other direction – to assume that the attack was relatively simple, and should have been prevented and/or noticed.
Granted, my experience is in Information Security, and so I’m always fairly convinced that it’ll be the simple attacks, not the complex and difficult ones, that will be the most successful against any site I’m trying to protect. It’s a little pessimistic, but it’s been proven right time and again.
So, never say that an attack is “sophisticated” unless you really mean that the attack was way beyond what could have been reasonably imagined. You don’t have to say the attackers used simple methods to get in because your team are idiots, because that’s unlikely to be entirely true, either. Just don’t make it sound like it’s not your fault. And don’t make that your opening gambit, either – this was the very first sentence in Premera’s notification.
“some of your personal information may have been accessed”
Again, this phrasing simply makes me think “these guys have no idea what was accessed”, which really doesn’t inspire confidence.
Instead, you should say “the attackers had access to all our information, including your personal and medical data”. Then acknowledge that you don’t have tracking on what information was exported, so you have to act as if it all was.
The worst apologies on record all contain some variation of “I’m sorry you’re upset”, or “I’m sorry you took offence”.
Premera’s version of this is “We … regret the concern it may cause”. So, not even “sorry”. And to the extent that it’s an apology at all, it is that we, current and past customers, were “concerned”.
Premera Blue Cross (“Premera”) …
… Information Technology (IT) systems
As if the lack of apology didn’t already tip us off that this document was prepared by a lawyer, the parenthetical creation of abbreviations to be used later on makes it completely clear.
If the letter had sounded more human, it would have been easier to receive as something other than a legal arse-covering exercise.
The letter acknowledges that the issue was discovered on January 29, 2015, and the letter is dated March 17, 2015. That’s nearly two months. And nearly a year since the attackers got in. That’s assuming that you’ve truly figured out the extent of the “sophisticated cyberattack”.
Actually, that’s pretty fast for security breach disclosure, but it still gives the impression to customers that you aren’t letting them know in enough time to protect themselves.
The reason given for this delay is that Premera wanted to ensure that their systems were safe before letting other attackers know about the issue – but it’s generally a fallacy to assume that attackers don’t know about your vulnerabilities. Premera, and the health insurance industry, do a great job of sharing security information with other health insurance providers – but the attackers do an even better job of sharing information about vulnerable systems and tools.
Which leads us to…
If your company doesn’t have a prepared breach disclosure letter, approved by public relations, the security team and your lawyers, it’s going to take you at least a week, probably two, to put one together. And you’ll have missed something, because you’re preparing it in a rush, in a panic, and in a haze while you’re angry and scared about having been attacked.
Your prepared letter won’t be complete, and won’t be entirely applicable to whatever breach finally comes along and bites you, but it’ll put you that much closer to being ready to handle and communicate that breach. You’ll still need to review it and argue between Security, Legal and PR teams.
Have a plan for this review process, and know the triggers that will start it. Maybe even test the process once in a while.
If you believe that breaches could require a credit notification or ID tracking protection, negotiate this ahead of time, so that this will not slow you down in your announcement. Or write your notification letter with the intent of providing this information at a later time.
Finally, because your notification letter will miss something, make sure it includes the ability to update your customers – link to an FAQ online that can be updated, and provide a call-in number for people to ask questions of an informed team of responders.
There’s always more information coming out about this vulnerability, and I plan to blog a little more about it later.
Let me know in particular if there’s something you’d like me to cover on this topic.
It’s about this time of year that I think…
Ah, who am I kidding, I think those kinds of things all the time.
Reading a story on the consequences of the theft of Adobe’s source code by hackers, I come across this startling phrase:
The hackers seem to be targeting vulnerabilities they find within the stolen code. The prediction is that they’re sifting through the code, attempting to find widespread weaknesses, intending to exploit them with maximum effect by using zero-day attacks.
What I’d love to know is why we aren’t seeing a flood of developers crying out to be educated in how they, too, can learn to sift through their own code, attempt to find widespread weaknesses, so they can shore them up and prevent their code from being exploited.
An example of the sort of comments we are seeing can be found here, and they are fairly predictable – “does this mean Open Source is flawed, if having access to the source code is a security risk”, schadenfreude at Adobe’s misfortune, all manner of assertions that Adobe weren’t a very secure company anyway, etc.
So, if you’re in the business of developing software – whether to sell, licence, give away, or simply to use in your own endeavours, you’re essentially in the same boat as Adobe prior to the hackers breaching their defences. Possibly the same boat as Adobe after the breach, but prior to the discovery.
Unless you are doing something different to what Adobe did, you are setting yourself up to be the next Adobe.
Obviously, Adobe isn’t giving us entire details of their own security program, and what’s gone right or wrong with it, but previous stories (as early as mid-2009) indicated that they were working closely with Microsoft to create an SDL (Security Development Lifecycle) for Adobe’s development.
So, instead of being all kinds of smug that Adobe got hacked, and you didn’t, maybe you should spend your time wondering if you can improve your processes to even reach the level Adobe was at when they got hacked.
And, to bring the topic back to what started the discussion – are you even doing to your software what these unidentified attackers are doing to Adobe’s code?
How long are you spending to do that, and what tools are you using to do so?
In a classic move, clearly designed to introduce National Cyber Security Awareness Month with quite a bang, the US Government has shut down, making it questionable as to whether National Cyber Security Awareness Month will actually happen.
In case the DHS isn’t able to make things happen without funding, here’s what they originally had planned:
I’m sure you’ll find myself and a few others keen to engage you on Information Security this month in the absence of any functioning legislators.
Maybe without the government in charge, we can stop using the “C” word to describe it.
The “C” word I’m referring to is, of course, “Cyber”. Bad word. Doesn’t mean anything remotely like what people using it think it means.
The main page of the DHS.GOV web site actually does carry a small banner indicating that there’s no activity happening at the web site today.
So, there may be many NCSAM events, but DHS will not be a part of them.
I’ve done an amount of training developers recently, and it seems like there are a number of different kinds of responses to my security message.
[You can safely assume that there’s also something that’s wrong with the message and the messenger, but I want to learn about the thing I likely can’t control or change – the supply of developers]
Here are some unfairly broad descriptions of stereotypes I’ve encountered along the way. The truth, as ever, is more nuanced, but I think if I can reach each of these target personas, I should have just about everyone covered.
Is there anyone I’ve missed?
I’m always happy to have one or more of these people in the room – the sort of developer who has some experience, and has been on a project that was attacked successfully at some point or another.
This kind of developer has likely quickly learned the lesson that even his own code is subject to attack, vulnerable and weak to the persistent probes of attackers. Perhaps his experience has also included examples of his own failures in more ordinary ways – mere bugs, with no particular security implications.
Usually, this will be an older developer, because experience is required – and his tales of terror, unrehearsed and true, can sometimes provide the “scared straight” lesson I try to deliver to my students.
This guy is usually a smart, younger individual. He may have had some previous nefarious activity, or simply researched security issues by attacking systems he owns.
But for my purposes, this guy can be too clever, because he distracts from my talk of ‘least privilege’ and ‘defence in depth’ with questions about race conditions, side-channel attacks, sub-millisecond time deltas across multi-second latency routes, and the like. IF those were the worst problems we see in this industry, I’d focus on them – but sadly, sites are still vulnerable to simple attacks, like my favourite – Reflected XSS in the Search field. [Simple exercise – watch a commercial break, and see how many of the sites advertised there have this vulnerability in them.]
But I like this guy for other reasons – he’s a possible future hire for my team, and a probable future assistant in finding, reporting and addressing vulnerabilities. Keeping this guy interested and engaged is key to making sure that he tells me about his findings, rather than sharing them with friends on the outside, or exploiting them himself.
Unbelievably to me, there are people who “done a project on it”, and therefore know all they want to about security. If what I was about to tell them was important, they’d have been told it by their professor at college, because their professor knew everything of any importance.
I personally wonder if this is going to be the kind of SDE who will join us for a short while, and not progress – because the impression they give to me is that they’ve finished learning right before their last final exam.
Related to the previous category is the developer who only does what it takes to get paid and to receive a good performance review.
I think this is the developer I should work the hardest to try and reach, because this attitude lies at the heart of every developer on their worst days at their desk. When the passion wanes, or the task is uninteresting, the desire to keep your job, continue to get paid, and progress through your career while satisfying your boss is the grinding cog that keeps you moving forward like a wind-up toy.
This is why it is important to keep searching to find ways of measuring code quality, and rewarding people who exhibit it – larger rewards for consistent prolonged improvement, smaller but more frequent rewards to keep the attention of the developer who makes a quick improvement to even a small piece of code.
Sadly, this guy is in my class because his boss told him he ought to attend. So I tell him at the end of my class that he needs to report back to his boss the security lesson that he learned – that all of his development-related goals should have the adverb “securely” appended to them. So “develop feature X” becomes “develop feature X securely”. If that is the one change I can make to this developer’s goals, I believe it will make a difference.
I’ve been doing this for long enough that I see the same faces in the crowd over and over again. I know I used to be a fanboy myself, and so I’m aware that sometimes this is because these folks learn something new each time. That’s why I like to deliver a different talk each time, even if it’s on the same subject as a previous lesson.
Or maybe they just didn’t get it all last time, and need to hear it again to get a deeper understanding. Either way, repeat visitors are definitely welcome – but I won’t get anywhere if that’s all I get in my audience.
Some developers do the development thing because they can’t NOT write code. If they were independently wealthy and could do whatever they want, they’d be behind a screen coding up some fun little app.
I like the ones with a calling to this job, because I believe I can give them enough passion in security to make it a part of their calling as well. [Yes, I feel I have a calling to do security – I want to save the world from bad code, and would do it if I was independently wealthy.]
Sadly, the hardest person to reach – harder even than the Salaryman – is the developer who matches the stereotypical perception of the developer mindset.
Convinced of his own superiority and cleverness, even if he doesn’t express it directly in such conceited terms, this person will see every suggested approach as beneath him, and every example of poor code as yet more proof of his own superiority.
“Sure, you’ve had problems with other developers making stupid security mistakes,” he’ll think to himself, “But I’m not that dumb. I’ve never written code that bad.”
I certainly hope you won’t ever write code as bad as the examples I give in my classes – those are errant samples of code written in haste, and which I wouldn’t include in my class if they didn’t clearly illustrate my point. But my point is that your colleagues – everyone around you – are going to write this bad a piece of code one day, and it is your job to find it. It is also their job to find it in the code you write, so either you had better be truly as good as you think you are, or you had better apply good security practices so they don’t find you at your worst coding moment.
I’ve found a new weekend hobby – it takes only a few minutes, is easily interruptible, and reminds me that the state of web security is such that I will never be out of a job.
Once I’m at the security blog site – often one I’ve never heard of, despite it being high up in the search results – I find the search box and throw a simple reflected XSS attack at it.
If that doesn’t work, I view the source code for the results page I got back, and use the information I see there to figure out what reflected XSS attack will work. Then I try that.
[Note: I use reflected XSS, because I know I can only hurt myself. I don’t play stored XSS or SQL injection games, which can easily cause actual damage at the server end, unless I have permission and I’m being paid.]
Finally, I try to find who I should contact about the exploitability of the site.
It’s interesting just how many of these sites are exploitable – some of them falling to the simplest of XSS attacks – and even more interesting to see how many sites don’t have a good, responsive contact address (or prefer simply not to engage with vuln discoverers).
I clearly wouldn’t dream of disclosing any of the vulnerabilities I’ve found until well after they’re fixed. Of course, after they’re fixed, I’m happy to see a mention that I’ve helped move the world forward a notch on some security scale. [Not sure why I’m not called out on the other version of that changelog.] I might allude to them on my twitter account, but not in any great detail.
From clicking the link to exploit is either under ten minutes or not at all – and reporting generally takes another ten minutes or so, most of which is hunting for the right address. The longer portion of the game is helping some of these guys figure out what action needs to be taken to fix things.
You can try using a WAF to solve your XSS problem, but then you’ve got two problems – a vulnerable web site, and that you have to manage your WAF settings. If you have a lot of spare time, you can use a WAF to shore up known-vulnerable fields and trap known attack strings. But it really doesn’t ever fix the problem.
If you can, don’t echo back to me what I sent you, because that’s how these attacks usually start. Don’t even include it in comments, because a good attack will just terminate the comment and start injecting HTML or script.
Unless you’re running a source code site, you probably don’t need me to search for angle brackets, or a number of other characters. So take them out of my search – or plain reject my search if I include them in my search.
OK, so you don’t have to encode the basics – what are the basics? I tend to start with alphabetic and numeric characters, maybe also a space. Encode everything else.
Yeah, that’s always the hard part. Encode it using the right encoding. That’s the short version. The long version is that you figure out what’s going to decode it, and make sure you encode for every layer that will decode. If you’re putting my text into a web page as a part of the page’s content, HTML encode it. If it’s in an attribute string, quote the characters using HTML attribute encoding – and make sure you quote the entire attribute value! If it’s an attribute string that will be used as a URL, you should URL encode it. Then you can HTML encode it, just to be sure.
[Then, of course, check that your encoding hasn’t killed the basic function of the search box!]
You should definitely respond to security reports – I understand that not everyone can have a 24/7 response team watching their blog (I certainly don’t) – you should try to respond within a couple of days, and anything under a week is probably going to be alright. Some vuln discoverers are upset if they don’t get a response much sooner, and see that as cause to publish their findings.
Me, I send a message first to ask if I’ve found the right place to send a security vulnerability report to, and only when I receive a positive acknowledgement do I send on the actual details of the exploit.
I’ve said before that I wish programmers would respond to reports of XSS as if I’d told them I caught them writing a bubble sort implementation in Cobol. Full of embarrassment at being such a beginner.
I’m putting this post in the “Programmer Hubris” section, but it’s really not the programmers this time, it’s the managers. And the lawyers, apparently.
Well, yeah, it always does, and this time what set me off is an NPR article by Tom Gjelten in a series they’re currently doing on “cybersecurity”.
This article probably had a bunch of men talking to NPR with expressions such as “hell, yeah!” and “it’s about time!”, or even the more balanced “well, the best defence is a good offence”.
Absolute rubbish. Pure codswallop.
Kind of, and no.
We’re certainly not being “attacked” in the means being described by analogy in the article.
"If you’re just standing up taking blows, the adversary will ultimately hit you hard enough that you fall to the ground and lose the match. You need to hit back." [says Dmitri Alperovitch, CrowdStrike’s co-founder.]
Yeah, except we’re not taking blows, and this isn’t boxing, and they’re not hitting us hard.
"What we need to do is get rid of the attackers and take away their tools and learn where their hideouts are and flush them out," [says Greg Hoglund, co-founder of HBGary, another firm known for being hacked by a bunch of anonymous nerds that he bragged about being all over]
That’s far closer to reality, but the people whose job it is to do that is the duly appointed law enforcement operatives who are able to enforce law.
"It’s [like] the government sees a missile heading for your company’s headquarters, and the government just yells, ‘Incoming!’ " Alperovitch says. "It’s doing nothing to prevent it, nothing to stop it [and] nothing to retaliate against the adversary." [says Alperovitch again]
No, it’s not really like that at all.
There is no missile. There is no boxer. There’s a guy sending you postcards.
Yep, pretty much exactly that.
Every packet that comes at you from the Internet is much like a postcard. It’s got a from address (of sorts) and a to address, and all the information inside the packet is readable. [That’s why encryption is applied to all your important transactions]
There’s a number of ways. You might be receiving far more postcards than you can legitimately handle, making it really difficult to assess which are the good postcards, and which are the bad ones. So, you contact the postman, and let him know this, and he tracks down (with the aid of the postal inspectors) who’s sending them, and stops carrying those postcards to you. In the meantime, you learn how to spot the obvious crappy postcards and throw them away – and when you use a machine to do this, it’s a lot less of a problem. That’s a denial of service attack.
Then there’s an attack against your web site. Pretty much, that equates to the postcard sender learning that there’s someone reading the postcards, whose job it is to do pretty much what the postcards tell them to do. So he sends postcards that say “punch the nearest person to you really hard in the face”. Obviously a few successes of this sort lead you to firing the idiot who’s punching his co-workers, and instead training the next guy as to what jobs he’s supposed to do on behalf of the postcard senders.
I’m sure that my smart readers can think up their own postcard-based analogies of other attacks that go on, now that you’ve seen these two examples.
Sure, send postcards, but unless you want the postman to be discarding all your outgoing mail, or the law enforcement types to turn up at your doorstep, those postcards had better not be harassing or inappropriate.
Even if you think you’re limiting your behaviour to that which the postman won’t notice as abusive, there’s the other issue with postcards. There’s no guarantee that they were sent from the address stated, and even if they were sent from there, there is no reason to believe that they were official communications.
All it takes is for some hacker to launch an attack from a hospital’s network space, and you’re now responsible for attacking an innocent target where lives could actually be at risk. [Sure, if that were the case, the hospital has shocking security issues of its own, but can you live with that rationalisation if your response to someone attacking your site winds up killing someone?]
I don’t think that counterattack on the Internet is ethical or appropriate.
Saw this update in my Windows Update list recently:
As it stands right now, this is what it says (in part):
OK, so I started off feeling good about this – what’s not to like about the idea that DTLS, a security layer for UDP that works roughly akin to TLS / SSL for TCP, now can be made a part of Windows?
Sure, you could say “what about downstream versions”, but then again, there’s a point where a developer should say “upgrading has its privileges”. I don’t support Windows 3.1 any more, and I don’t feel bad about that.
No, the part I dislike is this one:
Note DTLS provides TLS functionalities that are based on the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) protocol. Because TLS is based on the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) protocol, DTLS performs better than TLS.
That’s just plain wrong. Actually, I’m not even sure it qualifies as wrong, and it’s quite frankly the sort of mis-statement and outright guff that made me start responding to networking posts in the first place, and which propelled me in the direction of eventually becoming an MVP.
Yes, I was the nerdy guy complaining that there were already too many awful networking applications, and that promulgating stupid myths like “UDP performs better than TCP” or “the Nagle algorithm is slowing your app down, just disable it” causes there to be more of the same.
But I think that’s really the point – you actually do want nerds of that calibre writing your network applications, because network programming is not easy – it’s actually hard. As I have put it on a number of occasions, when you’re writing a program that works over a network, you’re only writing one half of the application (if that). The other half is written by someone else – and that person may have read a different RFC (or a different version of the protocol design), may have had a different interpretation of ambiguous (or even completely clear) sections, or could even be out to destroy your program, your data, your company, and anyone who ever trusted your application.
Surviving in those circumstances requires an understanding of the purity of good network code.
Bicycle messengers are faster than the postal service, too. Fast isn’t always what you’re looking for. In the case comparing UDP and TCP, if it was just a matter of “UDP is faster than TCP”, all the world’s web sites would be running on some protocol other than HTTP, because HTTP is rooted in TCP. Why don’t they?
Because UDP repeats packets, loses packets, repeats packets, and first of all, re-orders packets. And when your web delivery over UDP protocol retransmits those lost packets, correctly orders packets, drops repeated packets, and thereby gives you the full web experience without glitches, it’s re-written large chunks of the TCP stack over UDP – and done so with worse performance.
Don’t get me wrong – UDP is useful in and of itself, just not for the same tasks TCP is useful for. UDP is great for streaming audio and video, because you’d rather drop frames or snippets of sound than wait for them to arrive later (as they would do with TCP requesting retransmission, say). If you can afford to lose a few packets here and there in the interest of timely delivery of those packets that do get through, your application protocol is ideally suited to UDP. If it’s more important to occasionally wait a little in order to get the whole stream, TCP will outperform UDP every time.
Never choose UDP over TCP because you heard it goes faster.
Choose UDP over TCP because you’d rather have packets dropped at random by the network layer than have them arrive any later than the absolute fastest they can get there.
Choose TCP over UDP because you’d rather have all the packets that were sent, in the order that they were sent, than get most / many / some of them earlier.
And whether you use TCP or UDP, you can now add TLS-style security protection.
I await the arrival of encrypted UDP traffic with some interest.
I’ve been consistently amazed by human behaviours for many years, and through many employers.
One of the behaviours that always astonishes me is when I let someone know that they’re violating security policy, or simply behaving in an insecure manner, and rather than changing their behaviour or defending their own actions per se, they respond with some variation of “sure, but such-and-such team/person is already doing that and far worse”.
Maybe it’s my grammar school upbringing, in which it was clear that the response of “but Sir, Jenkins minor was also chewing gum” was not only going to get Jenkins into trouble, but also get me into more trouble (if only when Jenkins found out who snitched) – I really can’t see that there’s any appropriate response to such statements other than to say “well, thank you for drawing my attention to that other infraction, which I will decide to address at my convenience – now, back to your case…” – or perhaps less usefully, “that may be, but it’s you that I caught.”
I readily acknowledge that institutional behaviours are as much learned from the actions of one’s peers, so that it is important to curb widespread culturally-ingrained wrongness.
But I don’t see what people who use this argument expect will happen – is there really a circumstance in their past in which someone said “really? Oh, well then, that’s alright. Carry on.”