Category Archives: 13181

Improvements to the Exchange Remote Connectivity Analyzer




The Exchange Remote Connectivity Analyzer (ExRCA) has to be one of the best troubleshooting tools that the Exchange product team has ever produced.  It’s a one-stop shop that allows you to test remote connectivity to an Exchange organization using Autodiscover, ActiveSync, Outlook Anywhere, Web Services, or inbound/outbound SMTP from a Microsoft hosted cloud application on the Internet.  It works with both on-prem and Office 365 Exchange organizations.



Shawn McGrath is the developer in charge of ExRCA development and previewed recent improvements to us at the MVP Summit in February 2012.  I’m pleased to say that ExRCA version 1.4 has now been released!  The biggest changes are around the CAPTCHA experience, which I’ve been a vocal about for the past year.  Constructive Feedback = Good.  J



Here’s a list of the changes in this release:

  • We are using a new CAPTCHA service provided by an internal team.
  • The challenge is NOT case sensitive, so it doesn’t matter if you type upper or lower case letters.  We also note this on the web page.
  • The CAPTCHA challenges will not include hard to distinguish letters/numbers.  For example 2 and Z or O and 0.
  • If you get the challenge wrong, the password entries will not be removed.
  • Once you enter a correct response to the challenge, you will be verified for a set amount of time (~30 minutes).  This means you will not see additional CAPTCHA challenges until the timeout period expires.
  • The inbound SMTP test now inserts the IP address of the user performing the test into the test email message. The IP is also inserted into an SMTP Header (X-Originating-IP).
  • Fixed an issue in the Sender-ID test where certain DNS responses while evaluating the “exists” mechanism were incorrectly being treated as a TempError
  • The outbound SMTP Sender-ID tests now conform to the RFC specified limit of ten DNS-based mechanisms that can be used during the evaluation of the SPF record.
  • Fixed an issue where host names with all numbers in the top-level domain were not considered valid input
  • Fixed user interface issues that can cause the “helper bubble” to stick around when navigating in the wizard
  • Added a note to the EWS service account access test indicating that the mailbox must be empty
  • Changed the Windows Mobile Certificate test to warn instead of fail when certificates aren’t trusted by Windows Mobile since many other devices also use ActiveSync and may trust the certificate
  • Changed the Outlook Anywhere mutual authentication test to report a warning instead of an error when the mutual authentication (msstd: string) only matches a Subject Alternative Name on the certificate. Windows Vista SP1 and later can handle this configuration.
  • The Outlook Anywhere Proxy Ping and HTTP Authentication Method Tests now use the full query string; this is necessary to support certain UAG configurations.
  • Added additional error mappings for known issues

Shawn also created this fun video to demonstrate the new CAPTCHA
experience.





 

Fix for "Default Policy" with mailbox manager settings cannot be managed by the current version of Exchange Management Console

I’m doing an Exchange 2007 to Exchange 2010 migration for a client and found that the Address Lists and E-mail Address Policy had not been updated from Legacy Exchange 2003 policies when they upgraded to 2007.  Typically, these are converted from Legacy policies in Exchange 2007 or 2010 by adding an RecipientFilter OPATH filter.



Exchange 2003 Mailbox Management policies were replaced by Messaging Records Management (MRM) in Exchange 2007.  During the migration from Exchange 2003, you’re supposed to create new MRM policies to match your Exchange 2003 Mailbox Manager polices and then remove the 2003 policies using the Exchange 2003 Management Console.



The customer didn’t do this before Exchange 2003 was decommissioned, so I’m doing it now in the 2010 migration.  But as I tried to convert the Default Policy in E-mail Address Policies using the Set-EmailAddressPolicy “Default Policy” -IncludedRecipients AllRecipients command, I get the following error:



Set-EmailAddressPolicy : The recipient policy “Default Policy” with mailbox manager settings cannot be managed by the current version of Exchange Management Console. Please use a management console with the same version as the object.
At line:1 char:23
+ Set-EmailAddressPolicy  <<<< “Default Policy” -IncludedRecipients AllRecipients




This happens when the Default Policy also includes Mailbox Manager settings.  Since there are no Exchange 2003 servers anymore (or 2003 console) in this environment, I can’t remove the Mailbox Manager settings from the policy.  Here’s how to fix this using ADSI Edit:

  • Run ADSI Edit from the Exchange 2010 server.
  • In the Configuration container, navigate to CN=Recipient Policies,CN=<Exchange Org>,CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=<domain>,DC=<com>
  • In the middle pane, view the properties of the Default Policy.
  • Remove the value(s) of the MsExchMailboxManagerFolderSettings attibute so that it’s now <Not Set>
  • Edit the MsExchPolicyOptionList attribute and remove all the attributes that do not begin with 0xfc.  The policy that begins with 0xfc is the email addressing policy.
Now when you run Get-EmailAddressPolicy “Default Policy” | FL you will see that HasMailboxManagerSetting is set to False and you will be able to update the Default Policy.

How to remove Exchange 2003 Mailbox Manager settings without the 2003 Management Console

I’m doing an Exchange 2007 to Exchange 2010 migration for a client and found that the Address Lists and E-mail Address Policy had not been updated from Legacy Exchange 2003 policies when they upgraded to 2007.  Typically, these are converted from Legacy policies in Exchange 2007 or 2010 by adding an RecipientFilter OPATH filter.



Exchange 2003 Mailbox Management policies were replaced by Messaging Records Management (MRM) in Exchange 2007.  During the migration from Exchange 2003, you’re supposed to create new MRM policies to match your Exchange 2003 Mailbox Manager polices and then remove the 2003 policies using the Exchange 2003 Management Console.



The customer didn’t do this before Exchange 2003 was decommissioned, so I’m doing it now in the 2010 migration.  But as I tried to convert the Default Policy in E-mail Address Policies using the Set-EmailAddressPolicy “Default Policy” -IncludedRecipients AllRecipients command, I get the following error:





Set-EmailAddressPolicy : The recipient policy “Default Policy” with mailbox manager settings cannot be managed by the current version of Exchange Management Console. Please use a management console with the same version as the object.
At line:1 char:23
+ Set-EmailAddressPolicy  <<<< "Default Policy" -IncludedRecipients AllRecipients




This happens when the Default Policy also includes Mailbox Manager settings.  Since there are no Exchange 2003 servers anymore (or 2003 console) in this environment, I can’t remove the Mailbox Manager settings from the policy.  Here’s how to fix this using ADSI Edit:

  • Run ADSI Edit from the Exchange 2010 server.
  • In the Configuration container, navigate to CN=Recipient Policies,CN=<Exchange Org>,CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=<domain>,DC=<com>
  • In the middle pane, view the properties of the Default Policy.
  • Remove the value(s) of the MsExchMailboxManagerFolderSettings attibute so that it’s now 
  • Edit the MsExchPolicyOptionList attribute and remove all the attributes that do not begin with 0xfc.  The policy that begins with 0xfc is the email addressing policy.
Now when you run Get-EmailAddressPolicy “Default Policy” | FL you will see that HasMailboxManagerSetting is set to False and you will be able to update the Default Policy.

Exchange 2010 Makes You Think

One of the great things about working with Microsoft Exchange is the breadth and depth of knowledge you gain by designing and managing it.  In Exchange 2003, we made you a storage expert.  In Exchange 2007 you became a digital certificates expert.  Now in Exchange 2010 you will become a load balancing expert.

The Client Access Server role in Exchange 2010 has evolved into a true universal connection point for all client access – be it Outlook, MAPI, POP, ActiveSync, or web services clients like Entourage WS Edition.  This abstraction makes load balancing and fault tolerance for CAS servers paramount in any Exchange design where high availabilty is required.

There is no one size fits all solution for load balancing CAS arrays.  You may find that simple Windows Load Balancing will work for you, or you may have a need for bigger (and more expensive) hardware load balancers.  Do your research.  Learn.  Become an expert.

I encourage you to read Exploring Exchange 2010 RPC Client Access Service on the MSExchangeTeam blog.  This article gives an excellent overview of the new RPC Client Access and Address Book services in Exchange 2010.  It also explains many of the details about Client Access arrays.

Fixing Leading and Trailing Whitespace in Exchange Objects

You must remove all the leading and trailing spaces from Exchange 2000/2003 user names, group names, and Public Folder names prior to migrating them to Exchange 2007 or Exchange 2010.  Previous versions of Exchange and Outlook would let you create these objects, usually by accident.  Exchange 2007 and Exchange 2010 have strict conformance rules that will not allow this, so you’ll have to fix it before the objects are migrated.

For example, you may use the Exchange AddReplicaToPFRecursive.ps1 script to add your Exchange 2007 or 2010 servers as replicas to your Public Folders.  If the Public Folder contains leading or trailing whitespace you will receive an error in the Exchange Management Shell (EMS):

Set-PublicFolder : The Name property contains leading or trailing whitespace, which must be removed.
At C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange Server\Scripts\AddReplicaToPFRecursive.ps1:147 char:24
+ $_ | Set-PublicFolder <<<< -server $_.OriginatingServer;
WARNING: Object \Information Technology\Website Resources\Software Development has been corrupted and it is in an inconsistent state. The following validation errors have occurred:
WARNING: The Name property contains leading or trailing whitespace, which must be removed.

Use the following PowerShell one-liners to trim the leading and trailing whitespace from Exchange objects in AD:

USER OBJECTS

Single User Object:
Get-Mailbox -Identity USER | Foreach { Set-Mailbox -Identity $_.Identity -DisplayName $_.DisplayName.Trim() }

All User Objects:
Get-Mailbox | Foreach { Set-Mailbox -Identity $_.Identity -DisplayName $_.DisplayName.Trim() }




PUBLIC FOLDERS

Single Public Folder:
Get-PublicFolder -Identity “\Test\SubPath\PublicFolderName” | Set-PublicFolder -Identity $_.Identity -Name $_.Name.Trim()

All Public Folders:
Get-PublicFolder -Identity “\” -Recurse -ResultSize Unlimited | Foreach { Set-PublicFolder -Identity $_.Identity -Name $_.Name.Trim() }





DISTRIBUTION GROUPS

Single Distribution Group:
Get-DistributionGroup -Identity GroupName | Set-DistributionGroup -Identity $_.Identity -DisplayName $_.DisplayName.Trim()

All Distribution Groups:
Get-DistributionGroup | Foreach { Set-DistributionGroup -Identity $_.Identity -DisplayName $_.DisplayName.Trim() }




Note: These commands all give a warning if the object is not changed, which you can safely ignore:

WARNING: The command completed successfully but no settings of ‘\xxxxx\xxxxxx\xxxxx\IT Department Calendar’ have been modified.


Another configuration that can cause errors is when a Public Folder alias contains spaces. Use the following one-liners to remove spaces from Public Folder aliases:


Remove Spaces From a Single Public Folder Alias:
Get-PublicFolder -Identity “\Test\SubPath\PublicFolderName” | Get-MailPublicFolder |
Where {$_.Alias -like “* *”} | ForEach-Object { Set-MailPublicFolder $_.identity -Alias:($_.Alias -Replace ” “,””) }

Remove Spaces From All Public Folder Aliases:
Get-PublicFolder -Identity “\” -Recurse -ResultSize Unlimited | Get-MailPublicFolder |
Where {$_.Alias -like “* *”} | ForEach-Object { Set-MailPublicFolder $_.identity -Alias:($_.Alias -Replace ” “,””) }




These PowerShell one-liners demonstrate how easily some tasks can be performed.  This might take days to do using the GUI with thousands of objects.

How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync – Phase 6 – End-User Deployment of the ActiveSync Profile

This is the seventh and last post in my series, How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync in the Enterprise. To read an overview of the solution click here.  In this phase I will demonstrate the steps and procedures that the end-user will perform to configure their iPhone for ActiveSync.  I will also cover some advanced reverse proxy configurations, such as using Microsoft Threat Management Gateway (TMG), ISA, Tivoli Access Manager (TAM), etc.

As a review, the infrastructure has been built and the necessary software and certificates have been installed and configured.  Members of the ActiveSync Administrators group configure iPhone Configuration Profiles, one per iPhone, which includes the user’s ActiveSync configuration settings and the ActiveSyncUser user certificate.  Each iPhone Configuration Profile (iCP) is married to the iPhone and exported to the EAS share, which is also a website virtual directory on the CAS server.  The iCP is named for the user for which it is intended (i.e., jqsmith.mobileconfig).

In this final phase, the user authenticates to the EAS website using Safari from the iPhone.  The iPhone automatically downloads the iCP that matches the username.

Here are the steps in detail:

The user is instructed to tap Safari on the iPhone and navigate to https://webmail.companyabc.com/eas (where webmail.companyabc.com is the public FQDN for the CAS server).  The user logs into the Secure Website using the user’s AD logon name and password, as shown:


After successfully logging in, the iPhone will download the user-specific ActiveSync Configuration Profile, as shown.


The green Verified indication signifies that the profile was encrypted and signed for this device.

If the user taps More Details on the profile, the details of the configuration profile are displayed showing the ActiveSync server and the email address used in the configuration profile, as shown.  Note that the user cannot tell that a user certificate is embedded in the configuration profile.


Back on the Install Profile screen, tap Install and Install Now to begin installing the profile.

Note that the iPhone only supports one Exchange ActiveSync profile at a time (I sincerely hope this changes in the near future).  If the user already has Exchange ActiveSync configured, the iPhone will display the warning, “Can’t install Profile. Only one Exchange account can be set up at a given time.”  Remove the existing ActiveSync settings and begin the process again.

If the iPhone already has a passcode configured, the user will need to enter it at this time to begin installing the profile.

During installation of the profile the user is prompted for his/her AD password to connect to their mailbox, as shown:


Enter the AD password, tap Return, and then tap Next to complete installation of the profile.  When the profile has been successfully installed, tap Done.  The user can now close Safari.

If a device lock passcode has been configured in the Exchange ActiveSync Policy, the iPhone will display a message that the user must accept the new policy.  It will then prompt the user for a passcode using the complexity requirements specified in the EAS policy.

It may take a few minutes to complete synchronizing the user’s email, calendar, contacts and tasks for the first time.

If at any time in the future the user needs to re-install the ActiveSync Profile on the iPhone (for example, after a hardware reset or software restore), simply follow these steps again.

Removing the ActiveSync Profile
If the user wants to remove the ActiveSync Profile, follow these steps.  Removing the ActiveSync profile also removes the user certificate from the iPhone.

Tap Settings on the iPhone home screen and then tap General.  Scroll to the bottom and tap Profiles.  Tap the profile to remove and then tap Remove.  If the iPhone has a passcode configured, it must be entered to remove the profile.


Reverse Proxy Scenarios
Some environments secure their Client Access Servers from direct Internet communication using Microsoft ISA, Threat Management Gateway (TMG) server, or another reverse proxy solution.

In these scenarios, the public ActiveSync connection and authentication is made at the reverse proxy.  The reverse proxy then proxies the authentication to the internal CAS server(s).  The CAS servers, themselves, act as reverse proxies to the mailbox servers.

With an environment such as this, you need to install the certificate and private key on the reverse proxy server(s).  The reverse proxies need to be configured to require client certificates and use Basic Authentication.  They must then pass the certificate, username, password to the CAS servers to complete the connection.  This diagram should help.


I hope this series helps you with the deployment of iPhones in your Exchange ActiveSync environment.  I welcome your comments.


This concludes my series, How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync in the Enterprise.

Other articles in this series:

How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync – Phase 5 – Creating the Website for iPhone Profile Deployment

This is the sixth post in my series, How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync in the Enterprise. To read an overview of the solution click here.  In this phase, we will create the deployment website that end-users will use to download the appropriate iPhone Configuration Profile created in Phase 4.

Since you’re most likely using Outlook Web Access served up by the CAS servers, these make a natural choice for hosting the website.  I’ll cover how to do this using a single CAS server and then follow up with guidance and best practices for environments with multiple CAS servers.

Add the ASP Role Service to the Web Server
Begin by logging into the CAS server with administrator credentials and opening Server Manager.  Expand Roles and select Web Server (IIS).  Right-click Web Server (IIS) and select Add Role Services.  Under Application Development add the ASP role service, as shown.


Click Next and Install to complete the installation.  No restart is required.

Create the EAS Virtual Directory
Open Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.  Expand the CAS server name > Sites > Default Web Site.  Right-click Default Web Site and choose Add Virtual Directory.  Enter EAS for the Alias and click the (…) button to browse for the Physical Path.  Navigate to C:\inetpub\wwwroot and click the Make New Folder button.  Name the new folder EAS and click OK twice.


Configure the EAS WebSite Permissions
Right-click the new EAS virtual directory and choose Edit Permissions.  Click the Sharing tab and configure the EAS share with the following share permissions: Add ActiveSync Users (Read) and ActiveSync Admins (Full Control).  Remove Everyone from the share permissions. 

On the Security tab click Advanced and Change Permissions.  Uncheck Include inheritable permissions from this object’s parent, click Add (for Windows Server 2008, click Copy), and click OK twice.  Click Edit and remove the Users (CASname\Users) group.  Add ActiveSync Users (Read & Execute, List Folder Contents, Read) and ActiveSync Admins (Full Control), and click OK twice.

Configure the EAS WebSite Authentication
Select the EAS website and double-click Authentication.  Disable Anonymous Authentication and enable Basic Authentication.  Select Basic Authentication and click Edit in the Actions pane.  Enter the domain name for the Default Domain and click OK.

Configure MIME Handling
MIME handling tells the web server how to handle different file extensions and associates file extensions with applications.

Select the EAS website and double-click MIME Types.  Click Add in the Actions pane.  Enter mobileconfig for the File name extension and application/iphone-configuration for the MIME type, as shown, then click OK.


Create the Default Document for the EAS Website
We now need to create a default ASP document for the folder.  This ASP page will be used to cause the iPhone to automatically download the correct iPhone Configuration Profile.

Download the default.asp page here.  Edit default.asp to replace webmail.companyabc.com in the second to last line with the FQDN of your publicly available CAS server.  Save the file in the EAS folder.  You can now close Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.

Putting It All Together
Now that we have the EAS share and website configured, it’s simply a matter of exporting the iPhone configuration profiles to the EAS share (as described in Phase 4), using the ActiveSync user’s logon name as the name of the file (for example, jqsmith.mobileconfig). 

You then instruct the user to enter https://webmail.companyabc.com/eas in Safari from the iPhone.  The user will be prompted for authentication to access the website.  After the user enters his/her AD username and password, the iPhone Configuration Profile that matches the logon name will be downloaded to install on the iPhone.  I’ll cover those steps in detail in the final phase.

Special Configuration for Multiple CAS Servers
If your environment has more than one CAS server in a load-balancing solution used for OWA, you need to perform the procedures above for each of those CAS servers.

You will also need to make sure that you copy the encrypted and signed iPhone Configuration Profiles to each CAS server’s EAS share when you export it.  If this pertains to your environment, I recommend using DFS to replicate and distribute the profiles amongst the participating CAS servers.  With DFS you can save the iPhone Configuration Profiles to \\domain\EAS and it will replicate to all the CAS servers automatically.

This completes the configuration of the EAS deployment website.





This concludes Phase 5 of my series, How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync in the Enterprise.  In the last phase I will provide the end-user instructions and procedures.

Other articles in this series:

How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync – Phase 4 – Creating the iPhone Configuration Profile

This is the fifth post in my series, How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync in the Enterprise. To read an overview of the solution click here. In this phase, we will create iPhone Configuration Profiles using Apple’s iPhone Configuration Utility.  I will also show you how to embed the user certificate and private key into the profile and how to marry the profile to a specific iPhone. 

Let’s get started.

First, you will need to download and install the Apple iPhone Configuration Utility (iCU).  The latest version as of this writing is version 2.1.0.163 and is the one I will use here.  The iCU only installs on Windows XP SP3 or Windows Vista SP1 or greater.  It will not install on Windows Server.  It also requires NET 3.5 SP1.

Note: The iCU is not an enterprise class software program.  All the configurations, hardware profiles and configuration profiles are stored locally on the workstation in %USERPROFILE%\Local Settings\Application Data\Apple Computer\MobileDevice folder.  For this reason, I recommend using a single workstation for iPhone management and to backup this folder and child folders to a network location periodically.

Begin the configuration process by logging into the workstation with the credentials used to request and install the user certificate created in Phase 1.  This user has the ActiveSyncUser user certificate stored in his/her personal certificate store.  It will be needed later in this process.

Before the iPhone can be configured it must be activated on the AT&T network.  This is performed using iTunes.  Simply launch iTunes, connect the new iPhone to the computer using the USB cable, and follow the iTunes Setup Assistant.  Once the iPhone is activated you can close iTunes.

Now launch the iPhone Configuration Utility.  The iPhone will automatically be added to the Devices Library in the iCU, as shown below:


In the Devices library, click the iPhone and enter the user’s name and email address to identify the device profile.  Note that most iPhones will have the helpful name “iPhone”, so the Contact info you enter here will help you out later.

Now click the Configuration Profiles library and click the New icon to create a new base configuration profile.  The base configuration profile can be used for configuration settings that cannot be made using the Exchange ActiveSync Policy, such as iPhone Restrictions or VPN settings.  Apple calls these configurations “payloads”.

To create a new base configuration, select the General (Mandatory) setting and enter a Name, Identifier, Organization, and Description, as shown. 


Choose whether the base configuration profile can be removed.  Choices are Always, With Authentication (using a password), or Never.  For base configurations, I recommend With Authentication to prevent end-users from easily removing company restrictions.  You must then supply the Authorization password.  Notice there is no “Save” button anywhere.  Whatever you configure is written immediately to the configuration profile(s).

You can now configure your base configuration settings and restrictions, as shown.  Refer to the iCU help for configuration settings.  If you want to delete a payload from a profile, click the minus sign in the top right corner of the configuration item.


I recommend using Exchange 2007 / 2010 ActiveSync over-the-air policies for any configuration that can be configured using them (for example, device locking duration and passcode complexity).  This will give you the greatest amount of flexibility and will allow you to make changes on the fly.

Now deploy the iPhone Base Profile to the iPhone by clicking the iPhone name under DEVICES on the left pane.  Select the iPhone Base Profile and click Install.


The iPhone will prompt you to install the iPhone Base Profile, as shown below.  Tap Install and the Install Now.  After the profile installs, tap Done.


Back in the iCU, click the Configuration Profiles library.  Click the New icon again to create the ActiveSync Profile.  Configure the General (Mandatory) section as shown:


I recommend setting Security so that the ActiveSync Profile can Always be removed.  This will allow users to remove the EAS profile, which will help later if you ever need to re-deploy the EAS profile.

Now click the Exchange ActiveSync section and configure your ActiveSync settings for the iPhone.  Enter the Account Name, Exchange ActiveSync Host, Domain, User, and Email Address, as shown:


Do not enter the user’s password.  The iPhone will prompt the user for any field you leave blank when it installs the profile.  Going forward, the only items you will need to configure for subsequent ActiveSync profiles are the User and Email Address.

Click the + sign under Authentication Credential Name.  The Personal Certificate Store will open for you to add the ActiveSyncUser user certificate to the Exchange ActiveSync profile, as shown:


Enter the password you entered for the certificate’s private key in Phase 1.  The certificate and private key will be added to the Exchange ActiveSync configuration.  Check Include Authentication Credential Passphrase to include it in the profile, otherwise the device will prompt the user for the passphrase (not good).


You now have a fully configured iPhone ActiveSync Configuration Profile.  All that’s left is to export the ActiveSync Profile so that the user can install it.  You need the user to do this because the profile will prompt for the user’s Active Directory password (something I hope you don’t know).

Ensure that the ActiveSync Profile is selected and click the Export button.  The Export Configuration Profile window will open.  Select Create and sign encrytped configuration profile for each selected device from the dropdown box and select the correct device, as shown below.  Then click Export.  This will “marry” the ActiveSync configuration profile to the selected device, preventing it from being installed on any other iPhone.  This is how we meet the requirement that “only authorized devices can access Activesync”.


Now I need to jump forward a bit.  In the next phase, I will explain how to create the deployment website.  For now, let’s assume that the website already exists and that the UNC path to the share for that website is \\EXCAS1\eas.  Save the configuration profile to that share, naming the profile with the AD user’s logon name (for example, jqsmith.mobileconfig).

Congratulations!  You have now created a unique ActiveSync configuration profile with the embedded ActiveSyncUser user certificate, and encypted and married the profile to a specific iPhone.



This concludes Phase 4 of my series, How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync in the Enterprise.  The next phase will cover how to create the website for end-user iPhone profile deployment.

Other articles in this series:

How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync – Phase 3 – Publishing User Certificates to Active Directory

This is the fourth post in my series, How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync in the Enterprise. To read an overview of the solution click here. In this phase, we will publish the same user certificate to each user object in Active Directory that is a member of the ActiveSync Users security group.

As mentioned earlier, ActiveSync will be configured to require user certificates for authentication.  This means that the user needs a user certificate with the private key and ActiveSync will check this certificate for a matching certificate in Active Directory.  We need to publish the user accounts in Active Directory, as shown below.


When you view the properties of the published certificate, you see that it was issued by the CA (W2K8R2-CA) and that the certification path is valid, since we published the root CA certificate to all machines in the domain using Group Policy in Phase 2.


While this is a fairly simple process to do, I wrestled with different ways of doing it programmatically.  I finally decided to use VBScript to publish the certificate to AD.  I chose VBScript instead of PowerShell because I could not be certain that the ActiveSync Administrator(s) would have PowerShell installed.

The script uses CAPICOM, which is a security technology from Microsoft that allows Microsoft Visual Basic, Visual Basic Script, ASP, and C++ programmers to easily incorporate digital signing and encryption into their application.  To use CAPICOM, you must download and register the CAPICOM.DLL on the computer that runs the script.  The script automatically registers the DLL, as long as it resides in the same network share where the ActiveSync user certificate resides.

First, download CAPICOM and extract the contents to get the CAPICOM.DLL file (we have no need for any of the other files or examples).  Then create a network share that the mobile administrators have access to (for example \\fileserver\iPhone).  Copy the CAPICOM.DLL, the ActiveSyncUser.cer user certificate (exported in Phase 1), and the vbscript below to the share.  You will need to edit the script to reflect the name you used for your ActiveSync Users group in AD, the path to CAPICOM.DLL and the user certificate, and the name of the user certificate if necessary.

Here’s the Publish Mobile Cert.vbs script:

‘======================================================================================================================================
‘Publish Mobile Cert.vbs –
The admin running the script must have rights to modify the user accounts that are members of the ActiveSync Users group in AD.

‘Jeff Guillet
’02/10/2010

‘This script publishes the mobile user certificate into Active Directory for all members of the ActiveSync Users security group

‘Micosoft link for CAPICOM: http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?displaylang=en&FamilyID=860EE43A-A843-462F-ABB5-FF88EA5896F6
‘=======================================================================================================================================


On Error Resume Next


‘Configure constants
Const ADS_PROPERTY_UPDATE = 2
Const ADS_PROPERTY_APPEND = 3


‘————————————————————————–
‘Modify the three variables below, as required
‘————————————————————————–
eASUsersGroup = “ActiveSync Users”
pathToFiles = “\\fileserver\iPhone\”
certFile = “ActiveSyncUser.cer”
‘————————————————————————–


msg = “This script publishes the ‘” & certFile & “‘ certificate to all members of” & vbCRLF
msg = msg & “the ‘” & eASUsersGroup & “‘ security group. Do you want to continue?”
r = MsgBox(msg, vbYesNo + vbQuestion, “Publish Mobile Cert”)
If r = vbNo then Wscript.Quit


‘Create log file
Set fso = CreateObject(“Scripting.FileSystemObject”)
Set FullLog = fso.OpenTextFile(pathToFiles & “Publish Mobile Cert.log”, 8, True)


‘Check for and set dependencies
‘–Check for CAPICOM.DLL
Set FSO = CreateObject(“Scripting.FileSystemObject”)
If NOT FSO.FileExists (“C:\Windows\System32\capicom.dll”) Then
If NOT FSO.FileExists (pathToFiles & “capicom.dll”) Then
MsgBox pathToFiles & “capicom.dll is missing. Cannot continue.”, vbCritical, “Missing File”
Wscript.Quit
Else
FSO.CopyFile pathToFiles & “capicom.dll”, “C:\Windows\System32\”
End if
End if
‘–Check for certificate
If NOT FSO.FileExists (pathToFiles & certFile) Then
MsgBox pathToFiles & certFile & ” is missing. Cannot continue.”, vbCritical, “Missing File”
Wscript.Quit
End If
‘–Register CAPICOM.DLL
Set WshShell = WScript.CreateObject(“WScript.Shell”)
Return = WshShell.Run(“regsvr32 C:\Windows\System32\capicom.dll /s”, 0, true)

‘Load the certificate file and convert it to Base-64
Set Certificate = CreateObject(“CAPICOM.Certificate”)
Certificate.Load pathToFiles & certFile
BinaryEncodedCertificate = Certificate.Export(CAPICOM_ENCODE_BINARY)
Set Utilities = CreateObject(“CAPICOM.Utilities”)
ArrayEncodedCertificate = Utilities.BinaryStringToByteArray(BinaryEncodedCertificate)

‘Configure connection to Active Directory
Set con = CreateObject(“ADODB.Connection”)
con.Provider = “ADsDSOObject”
con.Open “DS Query”
Set command = CreateObject(“ADODB.Command”)
Set command.ActiveConnection = con
command.Properties(“searchscope”) = 2
command.Properties(“Page Size”) = 20000
command.Properties(“Timeout”) = 180

‘Get default domain
Set oRoot = GetObject(“LDAP://rootDSE”)
oDomain = “LDAP://” & oRoot.Get(“defaultNamingContext”)

‘Construct and execute query to get the eASUsersGroup
command.CommandText = “SELECT AdsPath FROM ‘” & oDomain & “‘ WHERE name = ‘” & eASUsersGroup & “‘ AND objectClass = ‘Group'”
Set rs = Command.Execute

‘Append to the log file
FullLog.writeline String(75, “=”)
FullLog.writeline “Publish Mobile Cert.vbs”
FullLog.writeline Now
FullLog.Writeline “Adding the mobile user certificate to the following users:”
FullLog.writeline String(75, “-“)

‘Loop through the result set
Do While NOT rs.EOF
Set oGroup = GetObject(rs.fields(0))
groupDN = oGroup.distinguishedName
‘Publish the certificate to each member of the group
For Each Member In oGroup.Members
userCount = userCount + 1
‘Append the certificate to the user’s certificate store in Active Directory
Set UserObj = GetObject(“LDAP://” & member.distinguishedName)
UserObj.PutEx ADS_PROPERTY_APPEND, “userCertificate”, Array(ArrayEncodedCertificate)
UserObj.SetInfo
If Err.Number = 0 Then
FullLog.writeline member.distinguishedName
Else
FullLog.writeline “Unable to update user: ” & member.distinguishedName
errorCount = errorCount + 1
End If
Next
Exit Do
Loop

FullLog.writeline String(75, “=”) & vbCRLF & vbCRLF

msg = “Successfully published the certificate to ” & userCount – errorCount & ” user accounts.” & vbCRLF
msg = msg & “Review the Publish Mobile Cert.log for details.”
If errorCount > 0 Then
msg = msg & vbCRLF & vbCRLF & errorCount & ” error(s) were encountered.”
MsgBox msg, vbExclamation, “Publish Mobile Cert”
Else
MsgBox msg, vbInformation, “Publish Mobile Cert”
End If
Here’s a link to the script for those of you averse to copying and pasting.

To run the script you must have rights to modify the user accounts that are members of the ActiveSync Users security group.  Simply double-click the script to run it.  The script will register CAPICOM.DLL, connect to Active Directory and search for the ActiveSync Users group, enumerate all the members of the group, and publish the ActiveSync user certificate to each user.  A log file is generated in the folder path specified in the script each time it is run.

We have now completed publishing the ActiveSync user certificate to the user accounts in Active Directory that are members of the ActiveSync Users group.



This concludes Phase 3 of my series, How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync in the Enterprise. The next phase will cover how to create the iPhone Configuration Profile using Apple’s iPhone Configuration Utility.

Other articles in this series:

How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync – Phase 2 – Configuring ActiveSync and Active Directory

This is the third post in my series, How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync in the Enterprise. To read an overview of the solution click here. In this phase, we will configure ActiveSync on the Exchange CAS and Mailbox servers and make the necessary changes in Active Directory.

Securing Exchange ActiveSync
Exchange ActiveSync is enabled by default for all Exchange users in a normal installation.  It can be disabled for select users using Active Directory Users and Computers (ADUC) for Exchange 2003 users or the Exchange 2007/2010 management tools for those mailbox users.

Since our solution requires that ActiveSync be available for only specific users, we could use a script that disables Activesync for all users who are not a member of an ActiveSync Users security group.  While this would work, it would be clumbsy and new users could access ActiveSync until the script runs again.  It also wouldn’t solve the requirement that only authorized devices can access ActiveSync.

In order to fulfill the requirements that only authorized users can access ActiveSync using authorized devices, we will configure ActiveSync to require user certificates.  The iPhones will receive a unique iPhone Configuration Profile that includes the user certificate we generated in Phase 1.  That profile can be loaded on one, and only one, iPhone.  More on that in a later phase.

Configuring Exchange ActiveSync
As mentioned earlier, ActiveSync is enabled by default in a normal Exchange installation.  It is configured by default to use only Basic authentication.  We need to configure the CAS servers to require user certificates.  This is only configured on the CAS servers, not the Mailbox servers.

To do this using the Exchange Management Console (EMC), expand Microsoft Exchange > Server Configuration > Client Access.  Select the Client Access Server to configure and click the Exchange ActiveSync tab in the work pane.  Double-click Microsoft-Server-ActiveSync to view its properties.  Click the Authentication tab and select Require client certificates, as shown below.

Repeat these steps for each CAS server.
To do the same thing using the Exchange Management Shell (EMS), use the following cmdlet to require client certificates for each CAS server:
That’s all there is to it.  You may also want to configure Remote File Servers at this time, but I won’t be covering that in this series.
Set-ActiveSyncVirtualDirectory -identity “CASservername\Microsoft-Server-ActiveSync (Default Web Site)” -ClientCertAuth Required
A Note About Exchange 2003 Mailbox Servers
I mentioned in the introduction that this scenario has some Exchange 2003 mailbox servers, just to spice things up.  If you use Exchange 2007 or 2010 CAS servers to front-end ActiveSync for Exchange 2003 mailboxes, you need to configure ActiveSync on the Exchange 2003 mailbox servers to allow Integrated Windows Authentication.  This is because the Exchange 2007/2010 CAS servers use Kerberos pass-through authentication to the E2K3 mailbox servers.

The trouble is, you can’t configure this using Exchange ESM and if you try to modify the Microsoft-Server-ActiveSync virtual directory in IIS Manager, the Exchange DS2MB process will overwrite your changes in a few minutes.  this is detailed on the Exchange Team blog here.

To overcome this, download and install Microsoft KB 937031.  The hotfix normally does not require a reboot, but will prompt for one if a scheduled reboot has been deferred.  This hotfix will enable the Authentication button on the Access tab of the Microsoft-Server-ActiveSync object.  This object is found in ESM under Servers > servername > Protocols > HTTP > Exchange Virtual Server > Microsoft-Server-ActiveSync.  Simply enable Basic authentication and Integrated Windows Authentication, as shown.

Configuring Active Directory
Now we need to configure Active Directory for the solution by creating the necessary user groups and publishing the self-signed CA Root certificate.
Create Security Groups
Create two universal security groups, ActiveSync Users and ActiveSync Admins.  Populate the groups with the appropriate users.  By using security groups, we can easily manage the solution using roles based security.
Configure Group Policy
Since our root CA is is not trusted by an external trusted CA like Verisign or Entrust, we need to install the root certificate in the Trusted Root Certification Authorities certificate store on the Exchange CAS servers.  While we can do this manually using the Certificates MMC, I’m going to show you how to publish it to all computers in AD using Group Policy, which is my best practice.
Using appropriate credentials (usually Domain Admin), open the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC).  Edit the Default Domain Policy and navigate to Computer Configuration > Policies > Windows Settings > Security Settings > Public Key Policies > Trusted Root Certification Authorities, as show below.

Right-click Trusted Root Certification Authorities and select Import.  Run through the Certificate Import Wizard to import the RootCA.cer certificate file we exported at the end of Phase 1.  Be sure to place the certificate in the Trusted Root Certification Authorities store.  You should now see the certificate in the Default Domain Policy.
After AD replication completes, logon to a CAS server and run GPUpdate to refresh Group Policy and import the root certificate.  Confirm that the certificate is installed using Internet Explorer.  Click Tools > Internet Options > Content > Certificates.  The root certificate should show under the Intermediate Certification Authorities tab, as shown.

We have completed securing and configuring Exchange ActiveSync, and configured Active Directory by creating the necessary groups and importing the root certificate into the Default Domain Group Policy.


This concludes Phase 2 of my series, How to Securely Deploy iPhones with Exchange ActiveSync in the Enterprise. The next phase will cover how to publish the user certificates to user accounts who are members of the ActiveSync Users security group.

Other articles in this series: