Eduasync part 18: Changes between the Async CTP and the Visual Studio 11 Preview

In preparation for CodeMash, I’ve been writing some more async code and decompiling it with Reflector. This time I’m using the Visual Studio 11 Developer Preview – the version which installs alongside Visual Studio 2010 under Windows 7. (Don’t ask me about any other features of Visual Studio 11 – I haven’t explored it thoroughly; I’ve really only used it for the C# 5 bits.)

There have been quite a few changes since the CTP – they’re not visible changes in terms of code that you’d normally write, but the state machine generated by the C# compiler is reasonably different. In this post I’ll describe the differences, as best I understand them. There are still a couple of things I don’t understand (which I’ll highlight within the post) but overall, I think I’ve got a pretty good handle on why the changes have been made.

I’m going to assume you already have a reasonable grasp of the basic idea of async and how it works – the way that the compiler generates a state machine to represent an async method or anonymous function, with originally-local variables being promoted to instance variables within the state machine, etc. If the last sentence was a complete mystery to you, see Eduasync part 7 for more information. I don’t expect you to remember the exact details of what was in the previous CTP though :)

Removal of iterator block leftovers

In the CTP, the code for async methods was based on the iterator block implementation. I suspect that’s still the case, but possibly sharing just a little less code. There used to be a few methods and fields which weren’t used in async methods, but now they’re gone:

  • There’s no now constructor, so no need for the "skeleton" method which replaces the real async method to pass in 0 as the initial state.
  • There’s no Dispose method.
  • There’s no disposing field.

It’s nice to see these gone, but it’s not terribly interesting. Now on to the bigger changes…

Large structural changes

There’s a set of related structural changes which don’t make sense individually. I’ll describe them first, then look at how it all hangs together, and my guess as to the reasoning behind.

The state machine is now a struct

The declaration of the nested type for the state machine is now something like this:

private struct StateMachine : IStateMachine
    // Fields common to all async state machines
    // (with caveats)
    private int state;
    private object awaiter;
    public AsyncTaskMethodBuilder<int> builder;
    public Action moveNextDelegate;
    private object stack;

    // Hoisted local variables

    // Methods
    public void SetMoveNextDelegate(Action action) { … }
    public void MoveNext() { … }

The caveats around the common field are in terms of the return type of the async method (which determines the type of builder used) and whether or not there are any awaits (if there are no awaits, the stack and awaiter fields aren’t generated).

Note that throughout this blog post I’ve changed the names of fields and types – in reality they’re all "unspeakable" names including angle-brackets, just like all compiler-generated names.

There’s a new assembly-wide interface

As you can see from the code above, the state machine implements an interface (actually called <>t__IStateMachine). One of these is created in the global namespace in each assembly that contains at least one async method or anonymous function, and it looks like this:

internal interface IStateMachine
    void SetMoveNextDelegate(Action action);

The implementation for this method is always the same, and it’s trivial:

public void SetMoveNextDelegate(Action action)
    this.moveNextDelegate = action;

Simplified skeleton method

The method which starts the state machine, which I’ve been calling the "skeleton" method everywhere, is now a bit simpler than it was. Something like this:

public static Task<int> FooAsync()
    StateMachine machine = new StateMachine();
    machine.builder = AsyncVoidMethodBuilder.Create();
    return machine.builder.Task;

In fact if you decompile the IL, you’ll see that it doesn’t explicitly initialize the variable to start with – it just declares it, sets the builder field and then calls MoveNext(). That’s not valid C# (as all the struct’s fields aren’t initialized), but it is valid IL. It’s equivalent to the code above though. Note how there’s nothing to set the continuation – where previously the moveNextDelegate field would be populated within the skeleton method.

Just-in-time delegate creation

Now that the skeleton method doesn’t create the delegate representing the continuation, it can be done when it’s first required – which is when we first encounter an await expression for an awaitable which hasn’t already completed. (If the awaitable has completed before we await it, the generated code skips the continuation and just uses the results immediately and synchronously).

The code for that delegate creation is slightly trickier than you might expect, however. It looks something like this:

Action action = this.moveNextDelegate;
if (action == null)
    Task<int> task = this.builder.Task;
    action = new Action(this.MoveNext);
    ((IStateMachine) action.Target).SetMoveNextDelegate(action);

There are two oddities here, one of which I mostly understand and one of which I don’t understand at all.

I really don’t understand the "task" variable here. Why do we need to exercise the AsyncTaskMethodBuilder.Task property? We don’t use the result anywhere… does forcing this flush some memory buffer? I have no clue on this one. (See the update at the bottom of the post…)

The part about setting the delegate via the interface makes more sense, but it’s subtle. You might expect code like this:

// Looks sensible, but is actually slightly broken
Action action = this.moveNextDelegate;
if (action == null)
    action = new Action(this.MoveNext);
    this.moveNextDelegate = action;

That would sort of work – but we’d end up needing to recreate the delegate each time we encountered an appropriate await expression. Although the above code saves the value to the field, it saves it within the current value of the state machine… after we’ve boxed that value as the target of the delegate. The value we want to mutate is the one within the box – which is precisely why there’s an interface, and why the code casts to it.

We can’t even just unbox and then set the field afterwards – at least in C# – because the unbox operation is always followed by a copy operation in normal C#. I believe it would be possible for the C# compiler to generate IL which unboxed action.Target without the copy, and then set the field in that. It’s not clear to me why the team went with the interface approach instead… I would expect that to be slower (as it requires dynamic dispatch) but I could easily be wrong. Of course, it would also make it impossible to decompile the IL to C#, which would make my talks harder, but don’t expect the C# team to bend the compiler implementation for my benefit ;)

(As an aside to all of this, I’ve gone back and forth on whether the "slightly broken" implementation would recreate the delegate on every appropriate await, or only two. I think it would end up being on every occurrence, as even though on the second occurrence we’d be operating within the context of the first boxed instance, the new delegate would have a reference to a new boxed copy each time. It does my head in a little bit, trying to think about this… more evidence that mutable structs are evil and hard to reason about. It’s not the wrong decision in this case, hidden far from the gaze of normal developers, but it’s a pain to reason about.)

Single awaiter variable

In the CTP, each await expression generated a separate field within the state machine, and that field was always of the exact awaiter type. In the VS11 Developer Preview, there’s always exactly one awaiter field (assuming there’s at least one await expression) and it’s always of type object. It’s used like this:

  // Single local variable used by both continuation and first-time paths
  TaskAwaiter<int> localAwaiter;


  if (conditions-for-first-time-execution)
      // Code before await

      localAwaiter = task.GetAwaiter();
      if (localAwaiter.IsCompleted)
          goto Await1Completed;
      this.state = 1;
      TaskAwaiter<int>[] awaiterArray = { localAwaiter };
      this.awaiter = awaiterArray;
      // Lazy delegate creation goes here
  // Continuation would get into here
  localAwaiter = ((TaskAwaiter<int>[]) this.awaiter)[0];
  this.awaiter = null;
  this.state = 0;
  int result = localAwaiter.GetResult(); 
  localAwaiter = default(TaskAwaiter<int>);

I realize there’s a lot of code here, but it does make some sense:

  • The value of the awaiter field is always either null, or a reference to a single-element array of the awaiter type for one of the await expressions.
  • A single localAwaiter variable is shared between the two code paths, populated either from the awaitable (on the initial code path) or by copying the value from the array (in the second code path).
  • The field is always set to null and the local variable is set to its default value after use, presumably for the sake of garbage collection

It’s basically a nice way of using the fact that we’ll only ever need one awaiter at a time. It’s not clear to me why an array is used instead of either using a reference to the awaiter for class-based awaiters, or simply by boxing for struct-based awaiters. The latter would need the same "unbox without copy" approach discussed in the previous section – so if there’s some reason why that’s actually infeasible, it would explain the use of an array here. We can’t use the interface trick in this case, as the compiler isn’t in control of the awaiter type (so can’t make it implement an interface).

Expression stack preservation

This one is actually a fix to a bug in the async CTP, which I’ve written about before. We’re used to the stack containing our local variables (in the absence of iterator blocks, captured variables etc, and modulo the stack being an implementation detail) but it’s also used for intermediate results within a single statement. For example, consider this block of code:

int x = 10;
int y = 5;
int z = x + 50 * y;

That last line is effectively:

  • Load the value of x onto the stack
  • Load the value 50 onto the stack
  • Load the value of y onto the stack
  • Multiply the top two stack values (50 and y) leaving the result on the stack
  • Add the top two stack values (x and the previously-computed result) leaving the result on the stack
  • Store the top stack value into z

Now suppose we want to turn y into a Task<int>:

int x = 10;
Task<int> y = Task.FromResult(5);
int z = x + 50 * await y;

Our state machine needs to make sure that it will preserve the same behaviour as the synchronous version, so it needs the same sort of stack. In the new-style state machine, all of that stack is saved in the "stack" field. It’s only one field, but may need to represent multiple different types within the code at various different await expressions – in the code above, for example, it represents two int values. As far as I can discover, the C# compiler generates code which uses the actual type of the value it needs, if it only requires a single value. If it needs multiple values, it uses an appropriate Tuple type, nesting tuples if it goes beyond the number of type parameters supported by the Tuple<…> family of types. So in our case above, we end up with code a bit like this:

// Local variable used in both paths
Tuple<int, int> tuple;

// Code before the await
if (conditions-for-first-time-execution) 

    tuple = new Tuple<int, int>(this.x, 50);
    this.stack = tuple;

// Continuation would get into here
tuple = (Tuple<int, int>) this.stack;
// IL copies the values from the tuple onto the stack at this point
this.stack = null;

// Both the fast and slow code paths get here eventually
this.z = stack0 + stack1 * awaiter.GetResult()

I say it’s a bit like this, because it’s hard to represent the IL exactly in C# in this case. The tuple is only created if it’s needed, i.e. not in the already-completed fast path. In that case, the values are loaded onto the stack but not then put into the tuple – execution skips straight to the code which uses the values already on the stack.

When the awaitable isn’t complete immediately, then a Tuple<int, int> is created, stored in the "stack" field, and the continuation is handed to the awaiter. On continuation, the tuple is loaded back from the "stack" field (and cast accordingly), the values are loaded onto the stack – and then we’re back into the common code path of fetching the value and performing the add and multiply operations.


As far as I’m aware, those are the most noticeable changes in the generated code. There may well still be a load more changes in Task<T> and the TPL in general – I wouldn’t be at all surprised – but that’s harder to investigate.

I’m sure all of this has been done in the name of performance (and correctness, in the case of stack preservation). The state machine is now much smaller in terms of the number of fields it requires, and objects are created locally as far as possible (including the state machine itself only requiring heap allocation if there’s ever a "slow" awaitable). I suspect there’s still some room for optimization, however:

  • Both the awaiter and the delegate use careful boxing and either arrays or a mutating interface to allow the boxed value to be changed. I suspect that using unbox with the concrete type, but without copying the value, would be more efficient. I may attempt to work this theory up into a test at some point.
  • If there’s only one awaiter type (usually TaskAwaiter<T> for some T), that type could be used instead of object, potentially reducing heap optimization
  • I’ve no idea why the builder.Task property is explicitly fetched and then the results discarded
  • If there’s only one await expression, the "stack" field can be strongly typed, which would also avoid boxing if only a single value needs to be within that stack
  • The stack field could be removed entirely when it’s not needed for intermediate stack value preservation. (I believe that would be the case reasonably often.)

The use of mutable value types is really fascinating (for me, at least) – I’m sure most people on the C# team would still say they’re evil, but when they’re used in a carefully controlled environment where real developers don’t have to reason about their behaviour, they can be useful.

Next time, I’ll hopefully get back to the idea I promised to write up before, about ordering a collection of tasks in completion order… before they’ve completed. (Well, sort of.) Should be fun…

Update (January 16th 2012)

Stephen Toub got in touch with me after I posted the original version of this blog entry, to explain the use of the Task property. Apparently the idea is that at this point, we know we’re going to return out of the state machine, so the skeleton method is going to access the Task property anyway. However, as we haven’t scheduled the continuation yet we also know that nothing will be accessing the Task property on a different thread. If we access it now for the first time, we can lazily allocate the task in the same thread that created the AsyncMethodBuilder, with no risk of contention. If we can force there to be a task ready and waiting for whatever accesses it later, we don’t need any synchronization in that area.

So why might we want to allocate the task lazily in the first place? Well, don’t forget that we might never have to wait for an await (as it were). We might just have an async method which takes the fast path everywhere. If that’s the case, then for certain cases (e.g. a non-generic, successfully completed task, or a Task<bool> which again has completed successfully) we can reuse the same instance repeatedly. Apparently this laziness isn’t yet part of the VS11 Developer Preview, but the reason for the property access is in preparation for this.

Another case of micro-optimization – which is fair enough when it’s at a system level :)

6 thoughts on “Eduasync part 18: Changes between the Async CTP and the Visual Studio 11 Preview”

  1. > The value of the awaiter field is always either null, or a reference to a single-element array of the awaiter type for one of the await expressions.

    But in the code, the field is set to localAwaiter, which is a TaskAwaiter, not an array. Is this a typo in the code?

  2. Man – it took me a *long* time to figure out what you were talking about with that mutating moveNextDelegate stuff, since I didn’t twig to the fact that creating a delegate to a method of a struct caused the target to be set to a boxed copy of the struct (which is obvious in retrospect, of course). I’m not sure if this changes my opinion on mutable structs – are there other situations I won’t figure out until too late? – but at least making delegates to struct methods seems to be a bit bizarre.

  3. Also:
    I wonder if a TypedReference with a 0-length fields array would be any better w/r/t the awaiter array – don’t think so.

    They have an interesting solution for the evaluation stack variables – though I’m surprised they don’t just convert them to locals – it turns into stfld/ldfld in either case but you don’t need to new and cast Tuples this way. I’d figure some weirdness of their codegen, but I can’t figure out how generating a Tuple to store them in could be easier.

    Minor nitpick: I don’t think the execution stack and the evaluation stack are related beyond that a deep evaluation stack will eventually spill onto the execution stack.

  4. @Simon: Okay, I’ll try to fix up that later on. (I have a larger edit to make anyway.)

    The evaluation stack variables can’t be changed into *local* variables because they need to be persisted across a continuation. The reason for the object/tuple/etc bit is to avoid having *lots* of instance variables in the state machine, for each bit of evaluation stack needed in each await.

  5. Yeah, sorry, I meant before the state-machine transform, so they get turned into StateMachine fields – since it seems to me that that would be simpler and give better results than figuring out what stack variables need to be spilled at that point.

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