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Monthly Archives: September 2011

WMI provider and MOF file

WMI is installed as a series of providers. The information on creating the classes comes from MOF files. I was recently asked about a problem with a specific class & could it be restored – in this case it was easier to rebuild WMI as the provider created a large part of the root\cimv2 namespace (namespaces can require multiple namespaces to complete their creation).

That got me thinking about how you discover the mof file associated with a class. Which leads to

$ns = "root\cimv2"            
$class = "Win32_Logicaldisk"            
            
            
$p = Get-WmiObject -Namespace $ns -Class $class |             
select -f 1 |             
select -ExpandProperty qualifiers |             
where {$_.Name -eq 'provider'}            
            
$class            
$p            
            
Get-ChildItem -Path C:\Windows\System32\wbem -Filter "*$($p.Value)*"


Get the first instance of a class, expand the qualifiers and select the qualifier with a name of provider.



Then perform a dir on the wbem folder to find the appropriate files. This isn’t infallible due to files names not necessarily being consistent but its a good starting point for the standard classes

Proxy function for Get-WmiObject

There are many people who don’t like to see the WMI system properties

PS> Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_OperatingSystem | select __*


__GENUS          : 2
__CLASS          : Win32_OperatingSystem
__SUPERCLASS     : CIM_OperatingSystem
__DYNASTY        : CIM_ManagedSystemElement
__RELPATH        : Win32_OperatingSystem=@
__PROPERTY_COUNT : 63
__DERIVATION     : {CIM_OperatingSystem, CIM_LogicalElement, CIM_ManagedSystemElement}
__SERVER         : RSLAPTOP01
__NAMESPACE      : root\cimv2
__PATH           :
\\RSLAPTOP01\root\cimv2:Win32_OperatingSystem=@

Now one day we may get a version of Get-WmiObject that allows us to block their display but in the mean time we can create a proxy function.

Using the metaprogramming module from

http://blogs.msdn.com/powershell/archive/2009/01/04/extending-and-or-modifing-commands-with-proxies.aspx

I created a proxy function

New-ProxyCommand Get-WmiObject -CommandType All
-AddParameter NoSystemProperties > Get-WmiObject.ps1

This adds a parameter NoSystemProperties and outputs everything to a .ps1 file.

The details need to be added:

  1. turn the script into a function
  2. add the [switch] type to the property
  3. add the code to deal with the new parameter

 

if ($NoSystemProperties) {
[Void]$PSBoundParameters.Remove("NoSystemProperties")
$scriptCmd = {& $wrappedCmd @PSBoundParameters |
Select-Object -ExcludeProperty __*  -Property *|
Select-Object -ExcludeProperty Scope, Path, Options, ClassPath,
Properties, SystemProperties, Qualifiers, Site, Container -Property * }
}
else {
$scriptCmd = {& $wrappedCmd @PSBoundParameters }
}

If the NoSystemProperties parameter is given then remove it from the bound parameters and then run get-wmiobject, exclude the system properties and then exclude the other related properties

If the NoSystemProperties isn’t set then run as normal

function Get-WmiObject {            
            
[CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='query')]            
param(            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='query', Mandatory=$true, Position=0)]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='list', Position=1)]            
    [System.String]            
    ${Class},            
            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='list')]            
    [Switch]            
    ${Recurse},            
            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='query', Position=1)]            
    [System.String[]]            
    ${Property},            
            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='query')]            
    [System.String]            
    ${Filter},            
            
    [Switch]            
    ${Amended},            
            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='query')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WQLQuery')]            
    [Switch]            
    ${DirectRead},            
            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='list')]            
    [Switch]            
    ${List},            
            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WQLQuery', Mandatory=$true)]            
    [System.String]            
    ${Query},            
            
    [Switch]            
    ${AsJob},            
            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='class')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WQLQuery')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='query')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='list')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='path')]            
    [System.Management.ImpersonationLevel]            
    ${Impersonation},            
            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WQLQuery')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='class')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='path')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='query')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='list')]            
    [System.Management.AuthenticationLevel]            
    ${Authentication},            
            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='class')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='list')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='path')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WQLQuery')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='query')]            
    [System.String]            
    ${Locale},            
            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='query')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WQLQuery')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='list')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='path')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='class')]            
    [Switch]            
    ${EnableAllPrivileges},            
            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='list')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='class')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WQLQuery')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='path')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='query')]            
    [System.String]            
    ${Authority},            
            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WQLQuery')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='path')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='class')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='query')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='list')]            
    [System.Management.Automation.PSCredential]            
    ${Credential},            
            
    [System.Int32]            
    ${ThrottleLimit},            
            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='list')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WQLQuery')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='path')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='class')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='query')]            
    [Alias('Cn')]            
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]            
    [System.String[]]            
    ${ComputerName},            
            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='list')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='path')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='class')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WQLQuery')]            
    [Parameter(ParameterSetName='query')]            
    [Alias('NS')]            
    [System.String]            
    ${Namespace},            
                
    [Switch]            
    ${NoSystemProperties})            
            
begin            
{            
    try {            
        $outBuffer = $null            
        if ($PSBoundParameters.TryGetValue('OutBuffer', [ref]$outBuffer))            
        {            
            $PSBoundParameters['OutBuffer'] = 1            
        }            
        $wrappedCmd = $ExecutionContext.InvokeCommand.GetCommand('Get-WmiObject', [System.Management.Automation.CommandTypes]::Cmdlet)            
        if ($NoSystemProperties) {            
          [Void]$PSBoundParameters.Remove("NoSystemProperties")            
          $scriptCmd = {& $wrappedCmd @PSBoundParameters |             
             Select-Object -ExcludeProperty __*  -Property *|             
             Select-Object -ExcludeProperty Scope, Path, Options, ClassPath, Properties, SystemProperties, Qualifiers, Site, Container -Property * }            
        }            
        else {            
          $scriptCmd = {& $wrappedCmd @PSBoundParameters }            
        }              
        $steppablePipeline = $scriptCmd.GetSteppablePipeline($myInvocation.CommandOrigin)            
        $steppablePipeline.Begin($PSCmdlet)            
    } catch {            
        throw            
    }            
}            
            
process            
{            
    try {            
        $steppablePipeline.Process($_)            
    } catch {            
        throw            
    }            
}            
            
end            
{            
    try {            
        $steppablePipeline.End()            
    } catch {            
        throw            
    }            
}            
            
<#

.ForwardHelpTargetName Get-WmiObject
.ForwardHelpCategory Cmdlet

#>            
            
}


The new function can be dot sourced or loaded from a module and because PowerShell runs functions before cmdlets it intercepts the cmdlet.



Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_OperatingSystem
Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_OperatingSystem –NoSystemProperties



then give us what we want.



The drawback is that using –NoSystemProperties we lose the methods but if you want them then you are either putting the results into an object or onto the pipeline in which case the system properties won’t be displayed.



Until we get a change to the cmdlet this will work.



Enjoy.

PowerShell 3 and DHCP 2: scopes

In this post http://msmvps.com/blogs/richardsiddaway/archive/2011/09/20/powershell-and-dhcp-1-servers.aspx

I showed how we could discover DHCP server information

Scopes can be discovered

Get-DhcpServerv4Scope -ComputerName server02  -ScopeId 10.10.54.0

Now how do we create a scope?

We use Add-DhcpServerv4Scope. Now shouldn’t that have been New-DhcpServerv4Scope?

Never the less this is how it works

Add-DhcpServerv4Scope -ComputerName server02 -Name TestScope 
-StartRange 192.168.100.1 -EndRange 192.168.100.200
-Description "Scope for testing" -Type DHCP
-State Active -SubnetMask 255.255.255.0
-LeaseDuration (New-TimeSpan -Days 1)

Type can be Dhcp,Bootp or Both

State can be Active or InActive

This creates and activates the scope

To inactivate a scope

Set-DhcpServerv4Scope -ComputerName server02
-ScopeId 192.168.100.0
-State Inactive

To reactivate

Set-DhcpServerv4Scope -ComputerName server02
-ScopeId 192.168.100.0
-State Active

To create a reservation

Add-DhcpServerv4Reservation -ComputerName server02
-ScopeId 192.168.100.0 -IPAddress 192.168.100.190
-ClientId 00-01-02-03-04-05 -Name Test57 
-Description "Exclusion for test device"

The ClientId is the MAC address (this one is made up)

To view the scopes reservations

Get-DhcpServerv4Reservation -ComputerName server02 -ScopeId 192.168.100.0

To remove a reservation

Remove-DhcpServerv4Reservation -ComputerName server02
-ScopeId 192.168.100.0 -ClientId 00-01-02-03-04-05

PowerShell remoting and the customisation of remoting end points–recording

The recording of Aleksandar’s session for the UK user group

http://msmvps.com/blogs/richardsiddaway/archive/2011/09/08/powershell-user-group-20-september-2011.aspx

entitled

PowerShell remoting and the customisation of remoting end points

Is available from

https://skydrive.live.com/?cid=43cfa46a74cf3e96#!/?cid=43cfa46a74cf3e96&sc=documents&uc=1&id=43CFA46A74CF3E96%212927

 

The slides and demo scripts are included in the zip file.

The next meeting will be 25 Oct  2011 on WSMAN and WMI.  It is an extended version of the recent session I did for the pre-TechEd Australia PowerShell conference. As well as WMI and WSMAN we will have a look at the new remoting access methods in PowerShell v3. Details to follow.

select-object quirk

I was working with the new CIM cmdlets in PowerShell 3 CTP and mistyped a command (as I thought)

Get-Cimclass win32_operatingsystem | select -ExpandProperty methods | select -f 1 select -ExpandProperty Qualifiers

 

My surprise was because of the two uses of select without a pipe between them.  It works, I don’t know why – but I don’t recommend it Smile

PowerShell Deep Dive speakers

Some more sessions have been announced for the Deep Dive

http://www.theexpertsconference.com/europe/2011/powershell-deep-dive/session-abstracts/

The speaker line up includes:

Aleksandar Nikolic

Shay Levy

Kirk Munro

Dmitry Sotnikov

Jeffery Hicks

James Brundage

Tobias Weltner

Brandon Shell

James O’Neill

Ravi Chaganti

Me

 

There will also be a significant presence from the PowerShell team.

 

If you can’t get your PowerShell questions answered here – then you won’t get them answered

PowerShell and DHCP: 1 – servers

Remember that yesterday I loaded the RSAT tools on to my Windows 8 server instance. This includes a PowerShell module that auto loads – like all Windows 8 modules on the PS module path

Start by looking at the GET commands

Get-Command -Module DhcpServer   get*

Get-DhcpServerAuditLog
Get-DhcpServerDatabase
Get-DhcpServerInDC
Get-DhcpServerSetting
Get-DhcpServerv4Binding
Get-DhcpServerv4Class
Get-DhcpServerv4DnsSetting
Get-DhcpServerv4ExclusionRange
Get-DhcpServerv4Failover
Get-DhcpServerv4Filter
Get-DhcpServerv4FilterList
Get-DhcpServerv4FreeIPAddress
Get-DhcpServerv4Lease
Get-DhcpServerv4OptionDefinition
Get-DhcpServerv4OptionValue
Get-DhcpServerv4Policy
Get-DhcpServerv4PolicyIPRange
Get-DhcpServerv4Reservation
Get-DhcpServerv4Scope
Get-DhcpServerv4ScopeStatistics
Get-DhcpServerv4Statistics
Get-DhcpServerv4Superscope
Get-DhcpServerv6Binding
Get-DhcpServerv6Class
Get-DhcpServerv6DnsSetting
Get-DhcpServerv6ExclusionRange
Get-DhcpServerv6FreeIPAddress
Get-DhcpServerv6Lease
Get-DhcpServerv6OptionDefinition
Get-DhcpServerv6OptionValue
Get-DhcpServerv6Reservation
Get-DhcpServerv6Scope
Get-DhcpServerv6ScopeStatistics
Get-DhcpServerv6StatelessStatis...
Get-DhcpServerv6StatelessStore
Get-DhcpServerv6Statistics
Get-DhcpServerVersion

 

This will keep us busy for a while and we haven’t looked at the other verbs!

Notice we don’t have a get-dhcpserver as such but we do have Get-DhcpServerVersion

 

PS> Get-DhcpServerVersion -ComputerName server02


MajorVersion : 6
MinorVersion : 1

 

PS> Get-WmiObject Win32_OperatingSystem -ComputerName server02 | fl Caption, version


Caption : Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter
version : 6.1.7601

 

All we need is a bit of a wrapper function to decode the version numbers

 

also server settings

PS> Get-DhcpServerSetting -ComputerName server02


IsDomainJoined            : True
IsAuthorized              : True
DynamicBootp              : True
RestoreStatus             : False
ConflictDetectionAttempts : 0
NpsUnreachableAction      : Full
NapEnabled                : True
ActivatePolicies          :

 

Scopes are fairly important

 

PS> Get-DhcpServerv4Scope -ComputerName server02 | fl *


ScopeId          : 10.10.54.0
SubnetMask       : 255.255.255.0
StartRange       : 10.10.54.246
EndRange         : 10.10.54.250
ActivatePolicies :
Delay            : 0
Description      : Only used for new servers - before a static address is defined
LeaseDuration    : 04:00:00
MaxBootpClients  : 4294967295
Name             : NewServers
NapEnable        : True
NapProfile       :
State            : Active
SuperscopeName   :
Type             : Dhcp
ComputerName     :

 

There are IPv6 equivalent cmdlets as well

 

checking on free addresses

PS> Get-DhcpServerv4FreeIPAddress -ComputerName server02 -ScopeId "10.10.54.0"
10.10.54.246

 

PS> Get-DhcpServerv4FreeIPAddress -ComputerName server02 -ScopeId "10.10.54.0" -NumAddress 10
WARNING: The requested number of free IP addresses could not be found.
10.10.54.246
10.10.54.247
10.10.54.248
10.10.54.249
10.10.54.250

 

PS> Get-DhcpServerv4ScopeStatistics -ScopeId "10.10.54.0" -ComputerName server02 | fl *


ScopeId                       : 10.10.54.0
AddressesFree                 : 5
AddressesFreeOnPartnerServer  :
AddressesFreeOnThisServer     :
AddressesInUse                : 0
AddressesInUseOnPartnerServer :
AddressesInUseOnThisServer    :
PendingOffers                 : 0
PercentageInUse               : 0
ReservedAddress               : 0
SuperscopeName                :
ComputerName                  :

 

and finally

Get-DhcpServerv4Lease -ComputerName server02 -ScopeId "10.10.54.0"

will return the leases

PowerShell 3 CTP1

Today’s big news is the release of CTP1 for PowerShell 3

http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?id=27548

It only runs on Windows 7 SP1 and Windows 2008 R2 SP1

Windows Server remote server admin tools

I added the RSAT tools using the server manager module

PS> Get-Command -Module servermanager

CommandType     Name
-----------     ----
Alias           Add-WindowsFeature
Alias           Remove-WindowsFeature
Cmdlet          Get-WindowsFeature
Cmdlet          Install-WindowsFeature
Cmdlet          Uninstall-WindowsFeature

Notice the name changes Add/Remove are now aliases with the cmdlets as install/uninstall

Use

Install-WindowsFeature -Name RSAT -IncludeAllSubFeature –Restart

to force the restart.

PowerShell needs to be running as an elevated shell to add features

The server needs a reboot before the tools are available for use

These modules are added

ADDSDeployment
RemoteAccess
WebAdministration
DnsServer
ADRMSAdmin
DFSN
GroupPolicy
NFS
Hyper-V
DhcpServer
BitLocker
ActiveDirectory
NetworkLoadBalancingClusters

PS> Get-DnsServer -ComputerName server02 | select -ExpandProperty ServerZone

ZoneName                     ZoneType        IsAutoCreated   IsDsIntegrated  IsReverseLookupZone  IsSigned
--------                     --------        -------------   --------------  -------------------  --------
_msdcs.Manticore.org         Primary         False           True            False                False
0.in-addr.arpa               Primary         True            False           True                 False
127.in-addr.arpa             Primary         True            False           True                 False
255.in-addr.arpa             Primary         True            False           True                 False
54.10.10.in-addr.arpa        Primary         False           True            True                 False
Manticore.org                Primary         False           True            False                False
TrustAnchors                 Primary         False           True            False                False

This working against my Win 2008 R2 DNS server – cool

And DHCP

Get-DhcpServerv4Scope -ComputerName server02

And Hyper-V

Get-VMHost -ComputerName server02

and AD

Get-ADDomainController

All of these work against my Win 2008 R2 domain

There is a mass to dig through here

Split-Path & UNC

split-path works with with UNC paths as well as normal paths

 

PS> $path = "\\UNCserver\TFSBuilds\componenet\v11.1\XS11.1\XS11.1_11.1.0.35"
PS> Split-Path -Path $path -Parent
\\UNCserver\TFSBuilds\componenet\v11.1\XS11.1

 

PS> Split-Path -Path (get-location) -Parent
C:\scripts