You can install Office 2010 in an RD Session Host (ie, Terminal Server), if you have a volume license version. (If you're using MSDN versions for testing, there's a special key for use in an RD Session Host environment see: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/983443.)
Great, and you can go ahead and use all the various features of Office. Except OneNote, which fails with an error message telling you to install the Desktop Experience Feature since you're on Windows Server. Well, that's great, and if you're on Server 2008 R2, that's the solution. BUT, if you're running on Windows Server 2012, there is no longer a Desktop Experience Feature. It's GONE. However, what OneNote is looking for is "Ink and Handwriting Services ".
To solve the problem, and install the necessary feature, run:
PS C:\> Add-WindowsFeature InkAndHandwritingServices
This will automatically load the ServerManager module (isn't PowerShell v3 cool?!) and add the necessary feature. This WILL need a reboot, so be prepared.