(An updated list for TFS 2012 is available here)
This is my personal selection of books covering TFS 2010:
|Agile Software Engineering with Visual Studio: From Concept to Continuous Feedback [Sample Chapter]
The book that Sam Guckenheimer (the Product Owner of Visual Studio) and I wrote about how agile software development with agile practices and Scrum as a project management framework can work with the support of VS.
|Professional Team Foundation Server 2010
Many useful tips and best practices from experts regarding all parts of TFS 2010.
|Software Testing with Visual Studio 2010
Targets specifically testing with VS 2010 and Microsoft Test Manager (MTM).
(Note: There’s a second book with a very similar title.)
|Inside the Microsoft Build Engine: Using MSBuild and Team Foundation Build (2nd edition)
Specifically about the topic of automated builds
|Professional Application Lifecycle Management with Visual Studio 2010: with Team Foundation Server 2010 [Sample Chapter]
For getting started: a solid overview over all ALM-related functionality in Visual Studio & TFS 2010.
|Professional Scrum with Team Foundation Server 2010
A book dedicated to how to do Scrum with TFS 2010.
Have fun reading!