If you encounter after installation of Exchange Server 2010 SP1, there are some RBAC Management Roles and Policies missing and you even can’t not access the Exchange Management Console or Exchange Management Shell, you need to follow this steps, when /PrepareAD and /PrepareDomain doesn’t fix the issue:
1. Open Windows PowerShell (not the Exchange Management Shell)
Note: If you have UAC enabled, right click Windows PowerShell and click Run as administrator.
2. Run Start-Transcript c:\RBAC.txt and press enter
Note: This will start logging all commands and output you type to a text file.
3. Run Add-PSSnapin *setup and press enter
Note: This adds the setup snap-in which contains the setup cmdlets used by Exchange during install. You may see errors about loading a format data file. You can ignore those errors. DO NOT run any other cmdlets in this snap-in without direction from Microsoft. Doing so could irreparably damage your Exchange installation.
4. Run Install-CannedRbacRoleAssignments -InvocationMode Install -Verbose and press enter.
Note: This cmdlet should create the required role assignments between the role groups and roles that should have been created during setup. Also, be sure you run with the Verbose switch so we can capture what the cmdlet does.
5. Run Remove-PSSnapin *setup and press enter
6. Run $Session = New-PSSession -ConfigurationName Microsoft.Exchange -ConnectionUri http://<FQDN of Exchange 2010 server>/PowerShell/ -Authentication Kerberos and press enter.
Check EMC and EMS if issue still persist.