Monthly Archive


PowerShell v6.2.2

PowerShell v6.2.2 has just been released.


One breaking change – the Enter-PSHostProcess is disabled when system is in lock down mode.


The jumplist is now created in STA to avoid potential CLR crash


Other changes are around the build process.


These changes shouldn’t have impact on your day to day scripts


PowerShell v6.1.5 has also been released with the same changes.


PowerShell v6.2.0 was released 28 March 2019 so you can expect the v6.1.x family to go out of support at the end of September 2019 assuming the lifecycle is followed. I recommend upgrading to v6.2.2 as soon as you can if you’re still using v6.1.x

Logon sessions

Saw a question about logon sessions that had me looking at CIM class Win32_LogonSession. I really don’t like the example code they have – code shouldn’t posted that contains aliases especially the abominable use of ? for Where-Object (pet PowerShell peeve number 3).


Something like this is a better example – especially as it demonstrates using CIM associations.

Get-CimInstance -ClassName Win32_Logonsession |
Where-Object LogonType -in @(2,10) |
ForEach-Object {

switch ($_.LogonType){
2 {$type = 'Interactive Session'}
10 {$type = 'Remote Session'}
default {throw "Broken! Unrecognised logon type" }

$usr = Get-CimAssociatedInstance -InputObject $psitem -ResultClassName Win32_Account
$props = [ordered]@{
Name = $usr.Name
Domain = $usr.Domain
SessionType = $type
LogonTime = $_.StartTime
Authentication = $_.AuthenticationPackage
Local = $usr.LocalAccount
if ($props.Name) {New-Object -TypeName PSobject -Property $props}


Get the instances of Win32_LogonSession where the LogonType is 2 (interactive) or 10 remote (RDP type session) and for each of them find the associated instance of Win32_Account (user information). Create the output object if the Win32_Account has the name property populated. This filters out historical sessions.


I could have used a Filter instead of Where-Object to perform the filtering but I may want to extend the number of types of session I include and doing it this way is easier than have a massive filter statement with lots of ORs

MVP award

I received the email this afternoon informing that I’d been awarded MVP status for another year – the 12th year I’ve received the MVP award.

I’m highly honoured to receive this and thank everyone who’ve read my blog, my articles or books, or listened to my talks.

PowerShell Space Invaders

Way back in 2007 (PowerShell v1 days) I wrote about PowerShell space Invaders.  I’ve just tried it in PowerShell v7 preview 1 and it seemed to work just fine including sound.


It runs in PowerShell v6.2.1 but without sound – there some error messages that probably relate to the missing sound but they go so quick you can’t read them.


PowerShell space Invaders does run in Windows PowerShell v5.1


If you haven’t tried PowerShell Space Invaders its available here


Its good to see that a fun script from so long ago still works

Load format file in a module

Staying with the test-connection function I thought I’d show how to turn the function and format file into a module. This includes how to load the format file in a module.


Create a folder TestConnection


Copy the format file and the script file that contains the test-connection function into the folder.


Rename the script file to TestConnection.psm1


Create a module manifest file:

PS> New-ModuleManifest -Path TestConnection.psd1 –RootModule testconnection.psm1 -FormatsToProcess RSPing.Format.ps1xml -CompatiblePSEditions Core

The manifest file should look like this:

# Module manifest for module 'TestConnection'
# Generated by: Richard
# Generated on: 30/06/2019


# Script module or binary module file associated with this manifest.
RootModule = 'testconnection.psm1'

# Version number of this module.
ModuleVersion = '0.0.1'

# Supported PSEditions
CompatiblePSEditions = 'Core'

# ID used to uniquely identify this module
GUID = 'e260cd41-8023-4a38-8dab-ac8ffbf20163'

# Author of this module
Author = 'Richard'

# Company or vendor of this module
CompanyName = 'Unknown'

# Copyright statement for this module
Copyright = '(c) Richard. All rights reserved.'

# Description of the functionality provided by this module
# Description = ''

# Minimum version of the PowerShell engine required by this module
# PowerShellVersion = ''

# Name of the PowerShell host required by this module
# PowerShellHostName = ''

# Minimum version of the PowerShell host required by this module
# PowerShellHostVersion = ''

# Minimum version of Microsoft .NET Framework required by this module. This prerequisite is valid for the PowerShell Desktop edition only.
# DotNetFrameworkVersion = ''

# Minimum version of the common language runtime (CLR) required by this module. This prerequisite is valid for the PowerShell Desktop edition only.
# CLRVersion = ''

# Processor architecture (None, X86, Amd64) required by this module
# ProcessorArchitecture = ''

# Modules that must be imported into the global environment prior to importing this module
# RequiredModules = @()

# Assemblies that must be loaded prior to importing this module
# RequiredAssemblies = @()

# Script files (.ps1) that are run in the caller's environment prior to importing this module.
# ScriptsToProcess = @()

# Type files (.ps1xml) to be loaded when importing this module
# TypesToProcess = @()

# Format files (.ps1xml) to be loaded when importing this module
FormatsToProcess = 'RSPing.Format.ps1xml'

# Modules to import as nested modules of the module specified in RootModule/ModuleToProcess
# NestedModules = @()

# Functions to export from this module, for best performance, do not use wildcards and do not delete the entry, use an empty array if there are no functions to export.
FunctionsToExport = '*'

# Cmdlets to export from this module, for best performance, do not use wildcards and do not delete the entry, use an empty array if there are no cmdlets to export.
CmdletsToExport = '*'

# Variables to export from this module
VariablesToExport = '*'

# Aliases to export from this module, for best performance, do not use wildcards and do not delete the entry, use an empty array if there are no aliases to export.
AliasesToExport = '*'


To load the module into your PowerShell session:

PS> Import-Module -Name C:\Scripts\Modules\TestConnection\TestConnection.psd1


Substitute the path to your module.

Even simpler than updating the format data manually!

Test-Connection formatting

Last time I showed how to write a function that replaces the current PowerShell 6/7 Test-Connection. This time I’ll show you how to do the Test-Connection formatting.

Using just the function you get something like this:

PS> test-connection -computername

Success : True
Source : W10PROIP
Destination :
IPV4Address :
Bytes : 32
Time : 0



All of the properties on the object are displayed and because there are more than four properties PowerShell defaults to a list display. What we want is to drop the Success property and display the remaining fields as a table – exactly like Windows PowerShell v5.1. I’ve deliberately dropped the IPv6 data because I don’t use IPV6 for anything.

Start by exporting the format data from Windows PowerShell

PS> Get-FormatData -TypeName 'System.Management.ManagementObject#root\cimv2\Win32_PingStatus' | Export-FormatData –Path C:\test\ping.xml


You have to use the full name for the type which you can find via

Test-Connection | get-member


If you open the xml file you’ll see something like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>


Initially the XML will be all on one line. You’ll need to use a pretty printer of manually edit the XML to get into a more readable format. I’ve deliberately put a few entries on the same line where they should probably be separated on their own lines.


The test-connection function sets the object type to RSping – you can change that if you want.


The XML needs the type changing in the name and typename fields. You also need to change the tableColumnHeader and the TableColumnItem fields so they look like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>


Save the format data as RSPing.Format.ps1xml


To use the format data you need to load it

Update-FormatData -PrependPath .\RSPing.Format.ps1xml


By prepending the format data your format data will be used before any system formatting.


Now when you use test-connection you’ll get the formatting you want.


The new formatting data is session specific. It stays in the PowerShell session until you close it. If you want the formatting data in all sessions either create a module or dot source the test-connection function and load the formatting data in your profile.

PowerShell 6/7 Test-Connection

The PowerShell 6/7 Test-Connection implementation as of PowerShell v6.2.1 and PowerShell v7.0 preview 1 is in my opinion a horrible example of how not to create output. the cmdlet shows each ping and then wraps all of the results in the Replies property so you need to do something like this:

Test-Connection | select -ExpandProperty Replies


And on top of all this there’s also a progress bar displayed!

What I really want is a version of test-connection in PowerShell 6/7 that works like test connection does in Windows PowerShell v5.1.


There’s a lot of discussion going round in circles about Test-Connection but in the mean time I decided to write my own. I’m only concerned with Windows systems so I can use a CIM class. If I wanted it to work cross-platform I’d need to use a based dot net solution.

function test-connection {
param (

$filter = "Address='$computername'"

$pingresults = 1..$count | ForEach-Object {
$ping = Get-CimInstance -ClassName Win32_PingStatus -Filter $filter
$props = [ordered]@{
Success = if ($ping.StatusCode -eq 0) {$true}else {$false}
Source = $env:COMPUTERNAME
Destination = $ping.Address
IPV4Address = $ping.IPV4Address
Bytes = $ping.BufferSize
Time = $ping.ResponseTime

$result = New-Object -TypeName PSobject -Property $props
$result.PSTypeNames[0] = "RSPing"


if ($quiet) {
foreach ($pingresult in $pingresults){
else {


I’ve given the function the name test-connection. If you have a function and a cmdlet with the same name the function takes precedence.


The function has three parameters – computername that can take a computer name or an IP address; count = number of pings defaults to 4 and a quiet switch that will return a boolean to indicate success of failure.


The work is done by Win32_PingStatus CIM class with a filter that uses the computername for the Address property.


The relevant properties are collected into the output object whose type is set to RSPing.


If the quiet switch is selected the Success property for each object is displayed otherwise the whole object is output.


I don’t want the success property in the full display so I’m going to write a format file to manage the display which I’ll show you next time.


PowerShell doesn’t always supply the functionality in the way that you want it but there’s nothing to stop you creating your own version of the command.

Quotes in CSVs

Up to and including PowerShell v6.2.x converting or exporting data to a csv has automatically put quotes round each field. In PowerShell v7 you can control quotes in CSVs


Get-Service | ConvertTo-Csv

as an example.


The current behaviour is to put quotes round everything

"XboxNetApiSvc","System.ServiceProcess.ServiceController[]","False","False","False","Xbox Live Networking Service","Syst


This is still the default behaviour in PowerShell v7 but there’s now a –usequotes parameter to control the quotes. Its default value is always to match previous behaviour.


Other options are AsNeeded and Never

AsNeeded consistently threw an error but Never seems to work

CDXML schema checks

PowerShell v3 introduced CDXML modules. Cmdlet Definition XML wraps a CIM class in XML to create a module. The methods of the CIM class can be used to generate additional cmdlets for the module. Many of the modules introduced with Windows 8 – including the networking and storage modules – are created in this manner though producing modules in this manner hasn’t caught on with this concept. The PowerShell 6.x releases didn’t check the XML of the CDXML modules against the CDXML schema as the required APIs weren’t available in .NET core 2.0. The APIs are in .NET Core 3.0 and the CDXML schema checks are built into PowerShell 7.

PowerShell Line continuation

There are a number of ways to signal PowerShell line continuation in your code. probably the most common is to have a pipeline symbol at the end of the line:

Get-Process |
Sort-Object -Property CPU -Descending -Top 5


because there’s nothing after the pipe symbol PowerShell assumes that the next line of code is actually a continuation and treats the 2 lines of code as a single pipeline. This is especially good if you have a very long pipeline with incorporating numerous cmdlets.


Since the days of PowerShell v1 many people have asked to be able to the pipe symbol at the beginning of the continuation line rather than at the end of the first line. The only way you could do that was to use the backtick ` symbol to signify line continuation:

Get-Process `
| Sort-Object -Property CPU -Descending -Top 5


This is an ugly approach as the back tick is a very small character its often overlooked when reading or working with the code which can lead to bugs.


PowerShell 7 allows you to use the pipe symbol at the start of a line as a continuation character without needing the backtick:

| Sort-Object -Property CPU -Descending -Top 5


Over the years many people, especially those new to PowerShell, have complained that there are sometimes too many different ways in PowerShell to achieve the result you want. To my mind this change of one of those unnecessary changes that just add complexity (of choice) for no real benefit. PowerShell is an open source project and if someone wants to add something like this then the opportunity is there. I’ll be sticking to the pipe symbol at the endo of the line approach as I don’t see any advantage to changing and I find the original approach easier to understand.