DNS Zone Types Explained, and their Significance in Active Directory

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Ace Fekay, MCT, MVP, MCSE 2012/Cloud, MCITP EA, MCTS Windows 2008/R2, Exchange 2007 & 2010, Exchange 2010 Enterprise Administrator, MCSE 2003/2000, MCSA Messaging 2003
   Microsoft Certified Trainer
   Microsoft MVP: Directory Services
   Active Directory, Exchange and Windows Infrastructure Engineer and Janitor

Revisions

Original publication 4/30/2013

Prelude

Ace here again. I thought to touch base on DNS zones, and more so, focus on what AD integrated zones are and how they work. This blog almost mimics my class lecture on this topic. Check back for updates periodically, which I will notate with a timestamp above with whatever I’ve added or modified.

This topic was also briefly discussed in the following Microsoft Technet forum thread:
Technet thread: “Secondary Zones?”
http://social.technet.microsoft.com/Forums/en-US/winserverNIS/thread/c1b0f3ac-c8af-4f4e-a5bc-23d034c85400

 

AD Integrated Zones AD Database Storage Locations

First up is a background on the various parts of the Active Directory database and what gets stored in them. This will help understand where DNS data is stored as I discuss it later in this blog.

The Active Directory Data Store (the AD database):

There are three possible storage locations for DNS zone storage in the Active Directory database:

  • DomainNC – This was the only available location with Windows 2000. This replicates to all DCs only in a specific domain.
  • DomainDnsZones partition – Introduced in Windows 2003 and used in all newer operating systems. This replicates to all DCs only in a specific domain in the forest.
  • ForestDnsZones partition. This replicates to all DCs in the forest.

You can see how not all partitions are replicated forest wide. It depends on the partition:

 

Ok, Now the DNS Basics:

  • A Secondary is a read-only copy
  • A Secondary zone stores it’s data in a text file (by default in the system32\dns folder)
  • A Secondary gets a copy of the zone data from the Primary
  • A Primary is the writeable copy
  • A Primary stores it’s zone data in a text file (by default in the system32\dns folder)
  • There can only be one Primary, but as many Secondary zones as you want.
  • You must allow zone transfer capabilities from the Primary zone if you want to create a Secondary.
  • AD integrated zones do NOT need zone transfers to be allowed (see below for specifics)

Active directory Integrated Zones changes this a bit:

AD Integrated zones are similar to Primary zones, however their data is stored as binary data in the actual AD database and not as a text file. The specific place in the AD database depends on the DC’s operating system version and replication scope, which means what “logical” part of the physical AD database it’s stored in, which will affect which DCs in the forest it will replicate to.

  • The “only one Primary Zone” rule is changed by introducing the Multi-Master Primary feature. This is because the data is not stored as a text file, rather it is stored in the actual, physical AD database (in one of 3 difference logical locations or what we call the Replication Scope), and any DC that has DNS installed (based on the replication scope) will be a writeable copy.
  • The zone data is replicated to other DCs in the replication scope where the data is stored (based on one of the 3 logical locations)
  • Each DC in the replication scope that has DNS installed, will automatically make available the zone data in DNS
  • Each DC that hosts the zone can “write” to the zone, and the changes get replicated to other DCs in the replication scope of the zone/
  • The DC that makes a change becomes the SOA at that point in time, until another DC makes a change to the zone, then it becomes the SOA
  • An AD Integrated zone can be configured to allow zone transfers to a Secondary, but the Secondary CANNOT be a DC in the same replication scope as the zone you are trying to create as a Secondary, otherwise the DC you are attempting to create the Secondary on will automatically change it to AD integrated, since it “sees” it in the AD database. In some cases, if this is forced or done incorrectly, it can lead to duplicate or conflicting zones in the AD database, which is problematic until fixed.

And if you install DNS on another DC, the zone data will *automatically* appear because DNS will recognize the data in the AD database. AD integrated zones can also act as a Primary zone for secondary zones, whether they are on Windows machines, BIND (on Unix) or any other name brand.

Remember, AD integrated zones still follow the RFCs, but have more features.

 

Duplicate or Conflicting zones?

Since I touched based on duplicate and conflicting zones, you may want to check if they exist in your AD database. You have to check each partition, and if you have more than one domain, you have to check the DomainDnsZones and DomainNC of each domain. You may even have to check it on multiple DCs in various AD Sites to see if they all “see” the same copy or different copies. You would be surprised what I’ve seen with AD replication problems and seeing different DCs “seeing” something different in its own database. This issue also manifests as a symptom in more than just a DNS problem, where you create a user on one DC and it never replicates to another DC.

Using ADSI Edit to Resolve Conflicting or Duplicate AD Integrated DNS zones
http://msmvps.com/blogs/acefekay/archive/2009/09/02/using-adsi-edit-to-resolve-conflicting-or-duplicate-ad-integrated-dns-zones.aspx

 

Primary Standard Zone, Secondary Standard Zones & Zone Transfers

Zone transfers allow you to create a read only copy (a Secondary zone) on another DNS server, that will pull a copy (transfers) from the read/writable zone (the Primary zone).

Primary and Secondary zones store their data as text files.

On a Windows machine, the zone files can be found in the \system32\dns folder with a file name such as “domain.com.dns”. You can have numerous read only copies, but there can only be one read/write of that zone.

Please keep in mind, the authoritative DNS server listed in the registrar for a public domain name (zone) does not have to be a Primary, it’s just the host nameserver listed as authoritative. It can get it’s data from a Primary that is not listed, hence the writable copy is actually hidden and protected from public access.

Do I need Zone transfers Allowed for AD Integrated Zones if I do not have Secondaries Zones?

The short answer: NOPE.

The reason is that the term “AD Integrated” means the zone is stored in the AD database, and the zone will replicate to other domain controllers within the same replication scope (domain-wide or forest-wide) automatically as part of the AD replication process.

By default, AD integrated zones are configured to not allow zone transfers.

Allowing zone transfers is an option provided to support non-DC DNS servers, BIND or any other name brand DNS server that you want to allow zone transfers to a secondary on those servers.

Rotating SOA

Additional security options of AD integrated zones, is one of the feature of AD integrated zones, as well as the fact that there can be more than one Primary zone copy of it. This is because all DNS servers that host the zone in a domain or forest has the ability to be a writable copies and becomes the actual “start of authority” (SOA) of that zone when a specific DC/DNS accepts a write operation, such as a client machine registering, or the DC itself updating its SRV records.

For example, if a DC updates it’s SRV and other records at the default 60 minute interval (all other machines register every 24 hours), it will update its data into the DNS server listed as the first DNS address in the network card. This server now writes it into DNS and NOW becomes the SOA of the zone. That data is replicated to other DC/DNS servers with default AD replication. Now all other DC/DNS servers will see the change.

To further explain, since the zone is AD integrated, each and every DC in the replication scope of the zone, can accept changes, due to an AD integrated zone’s Multi-Master Primary Zone features. Based on the definition of what an SOA is, that is being the DNS server that’s authoritative to accept writes, therefore, whichever DC/DNS accepted a change to the zone, that specific DC/DNS will become the SOA for that moment in time. Then when the next DC/DNS that accepts a change, it will now become the new SOA. The SOA constantly changing in an AD environment is accepted, and default behavior.

That is why you can watch the SOA name on AD integrated zones change. The data is replicated automatically as part of the AD replication process because it is stored in the AD database.

Active Directory-integrated DNS zone serial number behavior (SOA default behavior) 
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/282826 

 

References

Configure AD Integrated Zones
(When converting to AD integrated zones)
Quoted: “Only primary zones can be stored in the directory. If a zone is configured on other domain controllers as a secondary zone, these zones will be converted to primary zones when you convert the zone to AD integrated. This is because the multimaster replication model of Active Directory removes the need for secondary zones when a zone is stored in Active Directory. Conversion of the zone from secondary to primary will occur when AD DS is restarted.”
 http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee649181(v=ws.10)

Understanding DNS Zones
http://www.tech-faq.com/understanding-dns-zones.html

Understanding stub zones: Domain Name System(DNS)
Jan 21, 2005 – The master servers for a stub zone are one or more DNS servers authoritative for the child zone, usually the DNS server hosting the primary …
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc779197(v=ws.10).aspx

AD & Dynamic DNS Updates Registration Rules of engagement

Keep in mind, for the most part it automatically works “out of the box” without much administrative overhead.

Original Compilation: 11/19/2012
Updated: 9/5/2013

Prologue

What I’ve tried to do is accumulate all pertinent information about configuring dynamic DNS registration in an AD environment. I hope I haven’t missed anything, and that I’ve explained each numbered bullet point well enough and removed all ambiguity, to fully understand each point.

And yes, this blog is regarding an AD environment. If you have a non-AD environment with a Windows DNS server that you want your computers to register, please read the following blog:

DNS Dynamic Updates in a Workgroup
https://blogs.msmvps.com/acefekay/2013/06/12/dns-dynamic-updates-in-a-workgroup/

 

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Summary

  1. The machine’s DNS entries in the NIC, must be ONLY configured to use the internal DNS servers that host the zone. No others.
        a. DHCP Option 006 MUST only be the internal DNS server(s) you want to use, otherwise if using an ISP’s DNS or your router, expect undesired results.
  2. The Primary DNS Suffix on the machine MUST match the zone name in DNS.
    1. For joined machines, this is default. 
    2. For non-joined machines, the Primary DNS Suffix must be manually configured or scripted.
  3. If using DHCP Option 015 (Connection Specific Suffix), it must match the zone name and have “Use This Connection’s DNS Suffix in DNS Registration” along with “Register This Connection’s Addresses in DNS” checked in the NIC’s IPv4, Advanced, DNS tab.
    1. For additional information on how to configure updates in a workgroup:
      DNS Dynamic Updates in a Workgroup
      https://blogs.msmvps.com/acefekay/2013/06/12/dns-dynamic-updates-in-a-workgroup/
  4. The Zone must be configured to allow updates.
  5. For AD Integrated Zones where you have it configured for “Secure and Unsecure Updates:
    1. If the machine’s network card DNS address entries have been statically configured:
            – They must only point to the internal DNS servers that host the AD zone or to servers that have a reference to the zone (such as stubs, secondary zones, conditional forwarders, or forwarders)
            – It must be joined to the domain in order to authenticate using Kerberos to update.
    2. If statically configured and not joined to the domain, the client can’t update its record if the zone is set to Secure Only. 
    3. For non-joined domain DHCP clients, you can configure DHCP to update in lieu of the client updating into a Secure Only zone.
  6. For any non-Windows statically configured machine, it must support the DNS Dynamic Updates feature and the zone configured to allow Secure and Unsecure updates.
  7. If the DNS server is multihomed and not configured properly to work with multihoming, it may cause problems with Dynamic Updates.
    1. Read the following for more info:
      Multihomed DCs (with more than one unteamed NIC or multiple IPs) with DNS, RRAS, iSCSI, Clustering interfaces, management interfaces, backup interfaces, and/or PPPoE adapters – A multihomed DC is not a recommended configuration, however there are ways to configure a DC with registry mods:
      http://msmvps.com/blogs/acefekay/archive/2009/08/17/multihomed-dcs-with-dns-rras-and-or-pppoe-adapters.aspx
  8. If the zone is single label name, such as ‘domain’ instead of the proper minimal format of ‘domain.com,’ ‘domain.net,’ etc., it will NOT update.
  9. The client will “look” for the SOA of the zone when it attempts registration. If the SOA is not available or resolvable, it won’t register. Keep in mind with AD integrated zones the SOA rotates among the DCs because of the multimaster feature. This is default and expected behavior, but if there are any DCs that have any problems, and the client resolved the SOA to that DC, it may not accept the update.
  10. The zone in DNS must NOT be a single lable name, such as “DOMAIN” instead of the required minimum of two hierarchal levels such as domain.com, domain.local, domain.me, domain.you, etc. Single label name zones are problematic, do not conform to the DNS RFC, and causes excessive internet traffic to the Root Servers when DNS tries to resolve a single label name query, such as querying for computername.domain – in such a query, the domain name is actually treated as a TLD. ISC has made a note of the excessive traffic generated by Microsoft DNS servers configured with a single label name in 2004 with Microsoft, which in turn disabled the ability for Microsoft DNS in Windows 2000 SP4 and newer to resolve single label names without a registry band aid. More info on this:
    1. Active Directory DNS Domain Name Single Label Names – Problematic
      Published by Ace Fekay, MCT, MVP DS on Nov 12, 2009 at 6:25 PM  641  0
      http://msmvps.com/blogs/acefekay/archive/2009/11/12/active-directory-dns-domain-name-single-label-names.aspx
  11. For Windows 2008 and all newer operating systems, IPv6 must not be disabled. If disabled, it will cause other problems:
    The Cable Guy – Support for IPv6 in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7, by Joseph Davies, Microsoft, Inc.
    Quoted by Joseph Davies, MSFT:
    “IPv6 is a mandatory part of the Windows operating system and it is enabled and included in standard Windows service and application testing during the operating system development process. Because Windows was designed specifically with IPv6 present, Microsoft does not perform any testing to determine the effects of disabling IPv6. If IPv6 is disabled on Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, or later versions, some components will not function. “Moreover, applications that you might not think are using IPv6—such as Remote Assistance, HomeGroup, DirectAccess, and Windows Mail—could be.”
    http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/2009.07.cableguy.aspx
    1. Arguments against disabling IPv6
      Demoire, [MSFT], 24 Nov 2010 12:37 AM
      http://blogs.technet.com/b/netro/archive/2010/11/24/arguments-against-disabling-ipv6.aspx
    2. IPv6 for Microsoft Windows: Frequently Asked Questions
      (Basically Microsoft is saying in this KB article to not disable IPv6)
      http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/network/cc987595.aspx

 

Full explanation:

  1. Active Directory’s DNS Domain Name is NOT a single label name (“DOMAIN” vs. the minimal requirement of “domain.com.” “domain.local,” etc).
  2. The Primary DNS Suffix MUST matches the zone name that is allowing updates. Otherwise the client doesn’t know what zone name to register in. You can also have a different Connection Specific Suffix in addition to the Primary DNS Suffix to register into that zone as well.
  3. AD/DNS zone MUST be configured to allow dynamic updates, whether Secure or Secure and Non-Secure. For client machines, if a client is not joined to the domain, and the zone is set to Secure, it will not register either.
  4. You must ONLY use the DNS servers that host a copy of the AD zone name or have a reference to get to them.
    1. Do not use your ISP’s, an external DNS address, your router as a DNS address
    2. Do not use any DNS that does not have a copy of the AD zone.
    3. Internet resolution for your machines will be accomplished by the Root servers (Root Hints), however it’s recommended to configure a forwarder for efficient Internet resolution.
  5. The domain controller is multihomed (which means it has more than one unteamed, active NIC, more than one IP address, and/or RRAS is installed on the DC).
  6. The DNS addresses configured in the client’s IP properties must ONLY reference the DNS server(s) hosting the AD zone you want to update in.
    1. This means that you must NOT use an external DNS in any machine’s IP property in an AD environment.
    2. You can’t mix internal and external DNS server. This is because of the way the DNS Client side resolver service works. Even if you mix up internal DNS and ISP’s DNS addresses, the resolver algorithm may still pick the incorrect DNS to query. Based on how the algorithm works, it will ask the first one first. If it doesn’t get a response, it removes the first one from the eligible resolvers list and goes to the next in the list. It will not go back to the first one unless you restart the machine, restart the DNS Client service, or set a registry entry to cut the query TTL to 0. The rule is to ONLY use your internal DNS server(s) and configure a forwarder to your ISP’s DNS for efficient Internet resolution.
    3. There is a registry entry to cut the query to 0 TTL (normally this is not necessary, but I’m posting it as a reference).
      1. The DNS Client service does not revert to using the first server …The Windows 2000 Domain Name System (DNS) Client service (Dnscache) follows a certain algorithm when it decides the order in which to use the DNS servers …
        http://support.microsoft.com/kb/286834
    4. The DNS Client Service Does Not Revert to Using the First Server in the List in Windows XP (applies to all Operating Systems, too)
       http://support.microsoft.com/kb/320760
    5. For more info, please read the following on the client side resolver service:
      DNS, WINS NetBIOS & the Client Side Resolver, Browser Service, Disabling NetBIOS, Direct Hosted SMB (DirectSMB), If One DC is Down Does a Client logon to Another DC, and DNS Forwarders Algorithm if you have multiple forwarders.
      http://msmvps.com/blogs/acefekay/archive/2009/11/29/dns-wins-netbios-amp-the-client-side-resolver-browser-service-disabling-netbios-direct-hosted-smb-directsmb-if-one-dc-is-down-does-a-client-logon-to-another-dc-and-dns-forwarders-algorithm.aspx
  7. For DHCP clients, DHCP Option 006 for the clients are set to the same DNS server.
  8. If using DHCP, DHCP server must only be referencing the same exact DNS
    server(s) in it’s own IP properties in order for it to ‘force’ (if you set
    that setting) registration into DNS. Otherwise, how would it know which DNS
    to send the DNS registration request data to?
  9. If the AD DNS Domain name is a single label name, such as “EXAMPLE”, and not the proper format of “example.com” and/or any child of that format, such as “child1.example.com”, then we have a real big problem. DNS will not allow registration into a single label domain name.
    This is for two reasons:
    1. It’s not the proper hierarchal format. DNS is
                 hierarchal, but a single label name has no hierarchy.
                 It’s just a single name
    2. Registration attempts causes major Internet queries
                 to the Root servers. Why? Because it thinks the
                 single label name, such as “EXAMPLE”, is a TLD
                (Top Level Domain), such as “com”, “net”, etc. It
                will now try to find what Root name server out there
                handles that TLD. In the end it comes back to itself
               and then attempts to register. Unfortunately it doe NOT
               ask itself first for the mere reason it thinks it’s a TLD.
    3. Quoted from Alan Woods, Microsoft, 2004:
      “Due to this excessive Root query traffic, which ISC found from a study that discovered Microsoft DNS servers are causing excessive traffic because of single label names, Microsoft, being an internet friendly neighbor and wanting to stop this problem for their neighbors, stopped the ability to register into DNS with Windows 2000 SP4, XP SP1, (especially XP,which cause lookup problems too), and Windows 2003. After all, DNS is hierarchal, so therefore why even allow single label DNS domain names?”
    4. The above also *especially* applies to Windows Vista, Windows 7, &, 2008, 2008 R2, Windows 2012, and newer.
  10. ‘Register this connection’s address” on the client is not enabled under the NIC’s IP properties, DNS tab.
  11. Maybe there’s a GPO set to force Secure updates and the machine isn’t a joined member of the domain.
  12. With Windows 2000, 2003 and XP, the “DHCP client” Service is not running.  In Windows 2008, Windows Vista and all newer operating systems, it’s now the DNS Client Service.
    1. This is a requirement for DNS registration and DNS resolution even if the client is not actually using DHCP.
    2. Dynamic DNS Updates Do Not Work if the DHCP Client Service Stops (2000/2003/XP only)
      http://support.microsoft.com/?id=264539
  13. You can also configure DHCP to force register clients for you, as well as keep the DNS zone clean of old or duplicate entries. The following has more information on how to do that:
    1. DHCP, Dynamic DNS Updates, Scavenging, static entries & timestamps, and the DnsProxyUpdate Group (How to remove and prevent future duplicate DNS host records)
      Published by acefekay on Aug 20, 2009 at 10:36 AM  3758  2 
      http://msmvps.com/blogs/acefekay/archive/2009/08/20/dhcp-dynamic-dns-updates-scavenging-static-entries-amp-timestamps-and-the-dnsproxyupdate-group.aspx

 

What will stop AD SRV registration:

  1. Any DNS server referenced in TCP/IP properties that does not host the AD zone name, or does not have a reference to the internal AD zones name.
    1. External DNS servers do not host or have a reference, therefore must NOT be used.
    2. AD Domain machines must never be pointed at an external (ISP) DNS server or even use an ISP DNS server as an “Alternate DNS server” because they do not host the internal AD zone, or have a reference to it.
      1. Only use internal DNS servers when part of an Active Directory domain. Active Directory’s Reliance on DNS, and why you should never use an ISP’s DNS address or your router as a DNS address, or any other DNS server that does not host the AD zone name
        http://msmvps.com/blogs/acefekay/archive/2009/08/17/ad-and-its-reliance-on-dns.aspx
  2. Are any services disabled such as the DHCP Client service or the DNS Client Service? They are required services, whether the machine is static or DHCP.
    1. No DNS registration functions if DHCP Client Service Is Not Running (2000/2003/XP only)
      http://support.microsoft.com/?id=268674
    2. Dynamic DNS Updates Do Not Work if the DHCP Client Service Stops (2000/2003/XP only)
      http://support.microsoft.com/?id=264539
    3. For all Windows 2008, Windows Vista and all newer operating systems, it’s the DNS Client Service.
  3. The AD/DNS zone not configured to allow dynamic updates.
  4. Make sure ‘Register this connection’s address” in DNS is enabled under TCP/IP properties.
  5. Missing or incorrect “Primary DNS suffix” or “Connection-specific DNS suffix” of the domain to which the machine belongs. 
    1. I one of these are incorrect, the client side service cannot find the correct zone to register into. If missing or incorrect, it is called a Disjointed Domain Namespace.
  6. Is the firewall service enabled? (disable it).
  7. Were the default C: drive permissions altered and was a hotfix installed a recently?
    1. “Systems that have changed the default Access Control List permissions on the %windir%\registration directory may experience various problems after you install the Microsoft Security Bulletin MS05-051 for COM+ and MS DTC”
      http://support.microsoft.com/kb/909444
    2. For more info about this issue, see:
      http://blogs.technet.com/steriley/archive/2005/11/08/414002.aspx
  8. If the zone is set to Secure Updates Only, the computer may not have authenticated to the domain (which can be due to DNS misconfiguration or DNS server problem), which of course causes more problems than just DNS  registration.
  9. Is the File and Print services enabled?
    1. It must be enabled.
  10. Microsoft Client Services enabled?
    1. If not,  it must be enabled.
  11. Is DNS service listening on the private LAN interface?
    1. Check under the Interfaces tab under DNS server properties in the DNS console.
  12. More than one NIC on a client?
    1. The wrong one may be registering.
  13. Updates allowed on the zone?
    1. This is an obvious one.
  14. Primary DNS suffix matches the zone name in DNS and the AD domain name?
    1. If not, then it won’t register into the zone.
  15. Was Zone Alarm ever installed on these machines?
    1. If so, ZA leaves SYS files and other remnants that continue to block traffic.
  16. Any Event log errors?
  17. Was a Registry entry configured to stop registration?
    1. 246804 – How to Enable-Disable Windows 2000 Dynamic DNS Registrations (per NIC too):
      http://support.microsoft.com/?id=246804
  18. Spyware or something else such as DotNetDns installed on it?
    1. Download the free tool at www.malwarebytes.com and run a malware scan.
    2. Download the free Malicious Software Scanner from Microsoft and run a scan
    3. Download TrendMicro HouseCall free scan tool and run it.
  19. Single Label Domain Name?
    1. Active Directory DNS Domain Name Single Label Names – Problematic – And this applies to any DNS zone name, not just AD.
      Published by Ace Fekay, MCT, MVP DS on Nov 12, 2009 at 6:25 PM  641  0
      http://msmvps.com/blogs/acefekay/archive/2009/11/12/active-directory-dns-domain-name-single-label-names.aspx
  20. Netlogon and DFS services must be started.
  21. Malware or virus altering network services preventing it from registering.
    1. Some sort of firewall in place, whether the Windows firewall disabling File and Print Services, or a 3rd party firewall, which many AV programs now have built in and must be adjusted to allow this sort of traffic and exclude the NTDS and SYSVOL folders.
    2. If Windows Firewall, run the following to see what settings are enabled:
      netsh firewall show config
  22. Is IPv6 disabled? That will stop registration.
    1. Enable it.
  23. Do any duplicate AD integrated zones exist in the AD database?
    1. This will cause major problems. Any duplicates found must be deleted. The cause must also be determined to eliminate it from occurring again.
    2. Using ADSI Edit to Resolve Conflicting or Duplicate AD Integrated DNS zones
      Published by acefekay on Sep 2, 2009 at 2:34 PM  7748  2
      http://msmvps.com/blogs/acefekay/archive/2009/09/02/using-adsi-edit-to-resolve-conflicting-or-duplicate-ad-integrated-dns-zones.aspx
  24. Were imaged machines cloned without the image being Sysprepped first? 
    1. If not, duplicate SIDs will cause machines to fail authentication to register into the zone.

 

Suggestions, Comments, Corrections are welcomed.

Ace Fekay, MCT, MVP, MCSE 2012/Cloud, MCITP EA, MCTS Windows 2008/R2, Exchange 2007 & 2010, Exchange 2010 Enterprise Administrator, MCSE 2003/2000, MCSA Messaging 2003
   Microsoft Certified Trainer
   Microsoft MVP: Directory Services
   Active Directory, Exchange and Windows Infrastructure Engineer and Janitor
   www.delcocomputerconsulting.com