Lessons to learn already from Premera – 2. Prevention – Tales from the Crypto

Lessons to learn already from Premera – 2. Prevention

Not much has been released about exactly how Premera got attacked, and certainly nothing from anyone with recognised insider knowledge.

Disclaimer: I worked at Premera in the Information Security team, but it’s so so long ago that any of my internal knowledge is incorrect – so I’ll only talk about those things that I have seen published.

I am, above all, a customer of Premera’s, from 2004 until just a few weeks ago. But I’m a customer with a strong background in Information Security.

What have we read?

Almost everything boils down rather simply to one article as the source of what we know.

http://www.threatconnect.com/news/the-anthem-hack-all-roads-lead-to-china/

Some pertinent dates

February 4, 2015: News stories break about Anthem’s breach (formerly Wellpoint).

January 29, 2015: The date given by Premera as the date when they were first made aware that they’d been attacked.

I don’t think that it’s a coincidence that these dates are so close together. In my opinion, these dates imply that Anthem / Wellpoint found their own issues, notified the network of other health insurance companies, and then published to the news outlets.

As a result of this, Premera recognised the same attack patterns in their own systems.

This suggests that any other health insurance companies attacked by the same group (alleged to be “Deep Panda”) will discover and disclose it shortly.

Why I keep mentioning Wellpoint

I’ve kind of driven in the idea that Anthem used to be called Wellpoint, and the reason I’m bringing this out is that a part of the attack documented by ThreatConnect was to create a site called “we11point.com” – that’s “wellpoint.com”, but with the two letter “els” replaced with two “one” digits.

That’s relevant because the ThreatConnect article also called out that there was a web site called “prennera.com” created by the same group.

That’s sufficient for an attack

So, given a domain name similar to that of a site you wish to attack, how would you get full access to the company behind that site?

Here’s just one way you might mount that attack. There are other ways to do this, but this is the most obvious, given the limited information above.

  1. Create a domain, prennera.com
  2. Visit the premera.com sites used by employees from the external Internet (these would be VPN sites, Outlook Web Access and similar, HR sites – which often need to be accessed by ex-employees)
  3. Capture data related to the logon process – focus only on the path that represents a failed logon (because without passwords, you don’t know what a successful logon does)
  4. Replicate that onto your prennera.com network. Test it to make sure it looks good
  5. Now send email to employees, advising them to check on their email, their paystubs, whatever sites you’ve verified, but linking them to the prennera.com version
  6. Sit back and wait for people to send you their usernames and passwords – when they do, tell them they’ve got it wrong, and redirect them to the proper premera.com site
  7. Log on to the target network using the credentials you’ve got

If you’re concerned that I’m telling attackers how to do this, remember that this is obvious stuff. This is already a well known attack strategy, “homograph attacks”. This is what a penetration tester will do if you hire one to test your susceptibility to social engineering.

There’s no vulnerability involved, there’s no particularly obvious technical failing here, it’s just the age-old tactic of giving someone a screen that looks like their logon page, and telling them they’ve failed to logon. I saw this basic form of attack in the eighties, it’s that old.

How to defend against this?

If you’ve been reading my posts to date, you’ll know that I’m aware that security offence is sexy and exciting, but security defence is really where the clever stuff belongs.

I have a few simple recommendations that I think apply in this case:

  1. Separate employee and customer account databases. Maybe your employees are also customers, but their accounts should be separately managed and controlled. Maybe the ID is the same in both cases, but the accounts being referenced must be conceptually and architecturally in different account pools.
  2. Separate employee and customer web domains. This is just a generally good idea, because it means that a session ID or other security context from the customer site cannot be used on the employee site. Cross-Origin Security Policies apply to allow the browser to prevent sharing of credentials and access between the two domains. Separation of environments is one of the tasks a firewall can achieve relatively successfully, and with different domains, that job is assisted by your customers’ and employees’ browsers.
  3. External-to-internal access must be gated by a secondary authentication factor (2FA, MFA – standing for two/multi factor authentication). That way, an attacker who phishes your employees will not get a credential they can use from the outside.

Another tack that’s taken by companies is to engage a reputation management company, to register domain names that are homoglyphs to your own (those that look the same in a browser address bar).  Or, to file lawsuits that take down such domains when they appear. Whichever is cheaper. My perspective on this is that it costs money, and is doomed to fail whenever a new TLD arises, or your company creates a new brand.

[Not that reputation management companies can’t help you with your domain names, mind you – they can prevent you, for instance, from releasing a product with a name that’s already associated with a domain name owned by another company.]

These three steps are somewhat interdependent, and they may cause a certain degree of inconvenience, but they will prevent exactly the kind of attacks I’ve described. [Yes, there are other potential attacks, but none introduced by the suggested changes]

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