Entity Framework Extensibility Index

Updated on March 10th.

Here you will find a list of all my posts on Entity Framework extensibility.

Freetext Extension in Entity Framework Code First

I posted before a solution for adding custom SQL functions to Entity Framework Code First as extension methods. This time I am going to show how we can do something similar for the FREETEXT function of SQL Server. Please note that this example will only work if you have the Fulltext Search component installed and your table is indexed.

OK, so we want to have an extension method like this:

[DbFunction("CodeFirstDatabaseSchema", "FREETEXT")]

public static Boolean Freetext(this String column, String value)


    return column.Contains(value);


In order for Entity Framework to recognize it, we need to write our own convention, this is because Entity Framework only recognizes out of the box a number of SQL Server built-in functions. We can write one as this:

public class FreetextConvention : IStoreModelConvention<EdmModel>


    public static readonly FreetextConvention Instance = new FreetextConvention();

    public void Apply(EdmModel item, DbModel model)


        var valueParameter = FunctionParameter.Create("column", this.GetStorePrimitiveType(model, PrimitiveTypeKind.String), ParameterMode.In);

        var formatParameter = FunctionParameter.Create("value", this.GetStorePrimitiveType(model, PrimitiveTypeKind.String), ParameterMode.In);

        var returnValue = FunctionParameter.Create("result", this.GetStorePrimitiveType(model, PrimitiveTypeKind.Boolean), ParameterMode.ReturnValue);

        var function = this.CreateAndAddFunction(item, "FREETEXT", new[] { valueParameter, formatParameter }, new[] { returnValue });


    protected EdmFunction CreateAndAddFunction(EdmModel item, String name, IList<FunctionParameter> parameters, IList<FunctionParameter> returnValues)


        var payload = new EdmFunctionPayload { StoreFunctionName = name, Parameters = parameters, ReturnParameters = returnValues, Schema = this.GetDefaultSchema(item), IsBuiltIn = true };

        var function = EdmFunction.Create(name, this.GetDefaultNamespace(item), item.DataSpace, payload, null);


        return (function);


    protected EdmType GetStorePrimitiveType(DbModel model, PrimitiveTypeKind typeKind)


        return (model.ProviderManifest.GetStoreType(TypeUsage.CreateDefaultTypeUsage(PrimitiveType.GetEdmPrimitiveType(typeKind))).EdmType);


    protected String GetDefaultNamespace(EdmModel layerModel)


        return (layerModel.GlobalItems.OfType<EdmType>().Select(t => t.NamespaceName).Distinct().Single());


    protected String GetDefaultSchema(EdmModel layerModel)


        return (layerModel.Container.EntitySets.Select(s => s.Schema).Distinct().SingleOrDefault());



This registers a FREETEXT function with two string parameters and returning a boolean. All is fine, we add it to the DbContext in OnModelCreating:


You might have noticed the usage of a Instance static field, this is because, since the FreetextConvention class is stateless, there’s no point in creating many of them, we can just use the same instance.

Now, if we issue a LINQ query as:

var customers = ctx.Customers.Where(x => x.Name.Freetext("ricardo")).ToList();

It will fail miserably, complaining about this SQL fragment:

WHERE ((FREETEXT(name, N'ricardo') = 1)

The “= 1” part is here because the function is prototyped as boolean, which maps to SQL Server’s BIT data type, and the value for true is 1. Apparently, SQL Server does not support comparisons of some functions with 1; but if we run it as:

WHERE ((FREETEXT(name, N'ricardo'))

without the explicit comparison, it works perfectly. So, all we have to do is get rid of “= 1”. Fortunately, Entity Framework, as of version 6, offers some very nice extensibility points. There are at least two ways by which we can achieve this:

  • By intercepting the command tree;
  • By intercepting the raw SQL.

Here we will use option #2 and leave command trees for another post.

We need to identity something with a format of “FREETEXT(something) = 1”. We can do it using a regular expression, and the interception of the SQL command can be achieved by implementing IDbCommandInterceptor (no reference documentation yet, but I have reported it and it will soon be fixed, hopefully) and registering one such instance in the DbInterception (same) static class. An IDbCommandInterceptor implementation might look like this:

public class FreetextInterceptor : IDbCommandInterceptor


    public static readonly FreetextInterceptor Instance = new FreetextInterceptor();

    private static readonly Regex FreetextRegex = new Regex(@"FREETEXT\(([^)]+\))\) = 1");

    public void NonQueryExecuted(DbCommand command, DbCommandInterceptionContext<Int32> interceptionContext)



    public void NonQueryExecuting(DbCommand command, DbCommandInterceptionContext<Int32> interceptionContext)



    public void ReaderExecuted(DbCommand command, DbCommandInterceptionContext<DbDataReader> interceptionContext)



    public void ReaderExecuting(DbCommand command, DbCommandInterceptionContext<DbDataReader> interceptionContext)


        var matches = FreetextRegex.Matches(command.CommandText);

        if (matches.Count > 0)


            command.CommandText = FreetextRegex.Replace(command.CommandText, "FREETEXT($1)");



    public void ScalarExecuted(DbCommand command, DbCommandInterceptionContext<Object> interceptionContext)



    public void ScalarExecuting(DbCommand command, DbCommandInterceptionContext<Object> interceptionContext)




You can see that the only method we’re interested in is ReaderExecuting (again, no documentation available), with is the one that will be called just before a SQL SELECT query is sent to the database. In here we analyze the CommandText property of the DbCommand and get rid of the “= 1” clause, using a regular expression. Finally, we need to register the interceptor before we issue the query, maybe in the static constructor of our DbContext:


And now we can finally execute our query:

var customers = ctx.Customers.Where(x => x.Name.Freetext("ricardo")).ToList();

And that’s it. Don’t forget that in order for this to work, you need to enable Full Text Search.

Learning Microsoft Azure Review


I was recently asked by Packt Publishing to do a review of their title Learning Microsoft Azure, and so I did.

It wasn’t the first time I did a review on an Azure book, I also reviewed Microsoft Azure Development Cookbook, Second Edition, and you can see my review here.

This time, it is an introductory book, where the reader is introduced to Microsoft Azure, and guided as he/she develops a full solution for an imaginary industrial bakery, from end to end, including a mobile app. It covers technologies such as ASP.NET MVC 5, Windows Phone 8, Entity Framework Code First and Web API, always using C# and .NET as the backing framework. At the end of each chapter, there’s a questions and answers page where we can assess our level of understanding of the topics that were discussed in it.

The author is Geoff Webber-Cross (@webbercross), which also authored another book on Azure and Windows Phone.

Chapter 1: Getting Started with Microsoft Azure

The first chapter, as we might expect, does an introduction to cloud computing and the Microsoft Azure service, presents a decision framework for aiding in selecting a cloud service as opposed to on-premises, guides the reader in creating an Azure account including it’s many services and costs, and lists the most relevant terms that we will be encountering throughout the book.

Chapter 2: Designing a System for Microsoft Azure

Here we are presented with the sample scenario, its objectives and requirements and the architectural vision of it. Different views on the system and its subsystems are presented and for each the technical decisions are explained.

Chapter 3: Starting to Develop with Microsoft Azure

Next we setup the development environment, choose a Visual Studio edition, download the required SDK and create a project to be published in our Azure account. Visual Studio Online is also presented and it’s integration with Azure, namely, in order to ensure continuous integration and delivery.

Chapter 4: Creating and Managing a Windows Azure SQL Server Database

Here we get an overview of the SQL functionality of Azure, how to create and manage databases using the portal, Visual Studio and the SQL Server Management Studio, then we learn how to use Entity Framework Code First to access and manipulate its data, and to migrate to and from different versions using the Migrations API.

Chapter 5: Building Azure MVC Websites

This chapter explains how we can build an MVC application using OAuth authentication (social accounts such as Twitter, Facebook, Google and Microsoft Live). It goes on explaining how we can set up custom domains and SSL certificates for HTTPS and how to integrate the Azure Active Directory for single sign-on and custom permissions.

Chapter 6: Azure Website Diagnostics and Debugging

This one is about diagnosing problems and debugging our applications. It presents the basic built-in tracing and logging features of Azure and how we can obtain this information and goes on to show how we can use table storage and blobs for custom storing of structured logs and its querying. Kudu is briefly introduced and at the end we learn how to do remote debugging.

Chapter 7: Azure Service Bus Topic Integration

Next up is Service Bus, Azure’s enterprise service bus service. We learn how to configure it, create and manage topics using the portal and how to use the service from our MVC application and expose it as a service.

Chapter 8: Building Worker Roles

The next chapter is about Worker Roles, a feature of Azure Websites that performs disconnected (non web-related) tasks. The reader is guided in creating a Worker Role with Visual Studio, executing it in the Emulator and publishing it to Azure. The example presented builds on the Service Bus topics discussed in the previous chapter. We also learn about other scheduling mechanism of Azure, Scheduler jobs, and implement an example using Queues.

Chapter 9: Cloud Service Diagnostics, Debugging, and Configuration

Here we learn about configuring and using the diagnostics features of Cloud Services, again expanding the concepts introduced in chapter 6. We talk about IntelliTrace and Remote Debugging and on how to connect to our virtual machines with Remote Desktop. Finally we are given an example on how to use script tasks to automate common needs.

Chapter 10: Web API and Client Integration

This chapter introduces ASP.NET Web API, Microsoft’s latest technology for building REST web services and SignalR, for asynchronous, duplex, real-time communication between web clients and the server. The provided example shows how to integrate these two technologies to broadcast messages to connected clients, including a desktop Windows Presentation Framework (WPF) application. In the end we learn how to use the Active Directory to authorize accesses to our services.

Chapter 11: Integrating a Mobile Application Using Mobile Services

Coming closer to the end, this chapter walks the reader on the various aspects of building a mobile client that connects to the cloud using Azure Mobile Services. We see how to implement a mobile-enabled web application and Web API service, how to publish it and how to implement a matching Windows Phone application, fully featured with push notifications. It also guides us on configuring the mobile service with Active Directory for authentication. At the end we are shown how to build a Windows Store app to interact with our application.

Chapter 12: Preparing an Azure System for Production

The final chapter puts everything in place, explains how to setup different build configurations for different deployment environments and how to build and deliver deployment packages for Azure. At the very end we get a deployment checklist that may come in handy if ever we run into problems.


Overall, I enjoyed reading this book. It doesn’t cover all of Azure, but it does a very decent job in explaining how one can build a real-life application that works and handles most typical concerns, including support for mobile devices.

Entity Framework Pitfalls: Command Interceptors and Identity Keys

The IDbCommandInterceptor (sorry, no official documentation) interface was introduced in Entity Framework 6 as part of the new interception and logging API, and allows the interception of the SQL and its parameters that are sent to the database as the result of DbContext CRUD operations.

It offers two methods for each of the basic ADO.NET operations, those defined in DbCommand, one called before the operation is executed, and the other called afterwards:

  • ExecuteNonQuery (UPDATEs, INSERTs, DELETEs) –> NonQueryExecuting, NonQueryExecuted;
  • ExecuteScalar (SELECTs returning a single value) –> ScalarExecuting, ScalarExecuted;
  • ExecuteReader (SELECTs returning rows) –> ReaderExecuting, ReaderExecuted.

As usual, the methods ending with “ing” are executed before and those ending with “ed” are executed afterwards, always synchronously.

One might naively assume that INSERTs would always trigger a NonQueryExecuting/NonQueryExecuted call, and indeed it is so, unless we have an IDENTITY primary key, in which case, Entity Framework will instead call ReaderExecuting/ReaderExecuted. It’s easy to understand why: when we use an IDENTITY, we need to retrieve the generated value immediately after the INSERT, hence Entity Framework will generate code like:

   1: INSERT INTO [dbo].[SomeTable] (...)

   2: VALUES (...)

   3: SELECT [Id]

   4: FROM [dbo].[SomeTable]


The INSERT and SELECT are combined in the same command, which justifies the choice of ReaderExecuting/ReaderExecuted. Because in Entity Framework we always use IDENTITY – don’t we? –, it’s ReaderExecuting/ReaderExecuted that you should be implementing if you want to change the INSERT SQL or its parameters.

Custom Entity Framework Code First Convention for Discriminator Values

Since version 6, Entity Framework Code First allows the injection of custom conventions. These conventions define rules that will be applied by default to all mapped entities and properties, unless explicitly changed.

The conventions API includes a couple of interfaces: IConvention (marker only, should always be included), IConceptualModelConvention<T> (for the conceptual space of the model) and IStoreModelConvention<T> (for the store, or physical, side of the model). Worthy of mention, there is also a convenience class, Convention, that allows access to all mapped types and properties and doesn’t override any of the other conventions, and also TypeAttributeConfigurationConvention<T>, for tying a convention to a custom attribute. Some of the included attributes leverage these interfaces to configure some aspects of the mappings at design time, other configuration needs to be done explicitly in an override of OnModelCreating.

Entity Framework permits using a column for distinguishing between different types, when the Table Per Class Hierarchy / Single Table Inheritance pattern (please see Entity Framework Code First Inheritance for more information) is used for mapping a hierarchy of classes to a single table, as part of “soft delete” solutions, or, less known, for differentiating between multiple tenants. This column is called a discriminator.

In order to configure an entity to use a discriminator column, there is no out of the box attribute, so we must resort to code configuration:

   1: protected override void OnModelCreating(DbModelBuilder modelBuilder)

   2: {

   3:     modelBuilder.Entity<MyMultiTenantEntity>().Map(m => m.Requires("tenant_id").HasValue("first_tenant"));


   5:     base.OnModelCreating(modelBuilder);

   6: }

Because there’s really no need to keep repeating this code, let’s implement an attribute for indicating a discriminator column in an entity:

   1: [Serializable]

   2: [AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Class, AllowMultiple = false, Inherited = true)]

   3: public sealed class DiscriminatorAttribute : Attribute

   4: {

   5:     public DiscriminatorAttribute(String columnName, Object discriminatorValue)

   6:     {

   7:         this.ColumnName = columnName;

   8:         this.DiscriminatorValue = discriminatorValue;

   9:     }


  11:     public String ColumnName { get; private set; }


  13:     public Object DiscriminatorValue { get; private set; }


  15:     public override Boolean Equals(Object obj)

  16:     {

  17:         var other = obj as DiscriminatorAttribute;


  19:         if (other == null)

  20:         {

  21:             return (false);

  22:         }


  24:         return ((this.ColumnName == other.ColumnName) && (Object.Equals(this.DiscriminatorValue, other.DiscriminatorValue) == true));

  25:     }


  27:     public override Int32 GetHashCode()

  28:     {

  29:         return (String.Concat(this.ColumnName, ":", this.DiscriminatorValue).GetHashCode());

  30:     }

  31: }

As you can see, the DiscriminatorAttribute attribute can only be applied to a class, at most once. This makes sense, because most likely you will only have a single discriminator column per entity:

   1: [Discriminator("tenant_id", "first_tenant")]

   2: public class MyMultiTenantEntity

   3: {

   4:     //...

   5: }

You need to specify both a column name and a discriminator value, which can be of any type, usually, a string or an integer.

Now, let’s write a custom convention that knows how to handle our custom attribute and perform the mapping:



   1: public sealed class DiscriminatorConvention : TypeAttributeConfigurationConvention<DiscriminatorAttribute>

   2: {

   3:     private static readonly MethodInfo entityMethod = typeof(DbModelBuilder).GetMethod("Entity");

   4:     private static readonly MethodInfo hasValueMethod = typeof(ValueConditionConfiguration).GetMethods().Single(m => (m.Name == "HasValue") && (m.IsGenericMethod == false));


   6:     private readonly DbModelBuilder modelBuilder;

   7:     private readonly ISet<Type> types = new HashSet<Type>();


   9:     public DiscriminatorConvention(DbModelBuilder modelBuilder)

  10:     {

  11:         this.modelBuilder = modelBuilder;

  12:     }


  14:     public override void Apply(ConventionTypeConfiguration configuration, DiscriminatorAttribute attribute)

  15:     {

  16:         if (this.types.Contains(configuration.ClrType) == true)

  17:         {

  18:             //if the type has already been processed, bail out

  19:             return;

  20:         }


  22:         //add the type to the list of processed types

  23:         this.types.Add(configuration.ClrType);


  25:         dynamic entity = entityMethod.MakeGenericMethod(configuration.ClrType).Invoke(modelBuilder, null);


  27:         Action<dynamic> action = arg =>

  28:         {

  29:             var valueConditionConfiguration = arg.Requires(attribute.ColumnName);

  30:             hasValueMethod.Invoke(valueConditionConfiguration, new Object[] { attribute.DiscriminatorValue });

  31:         };


  33:         entity.Map(action);

  34:     }

  35: }

This class uses a bit of dynamics and reflection because types are not known at compile time, and hence we cannot use generics directly. Because the Apply method will be called multiple times, we need to keep track of which entities have already been processed by this convention, so as to avoid reprocessing them. We need to pass it the instance of DbModelBuilder, because otherwise our custom convention would have no way to apply the mapping, but I think it is a reasonable trade off.

Et voilà! In order to make use of it, we need to register the convention in OnModelCreating:

   1: protected override void OnModelCreating(DbModelBuilder modelBuilder)

   2: {

   3:     modelBuilder.Conventions.Add(new DiscriminatorConvention(modelBuilder));


   5:     base.OnModelCreating(modelBuilder);

   6: }

And that’s it! Happy conventions! Winking smile