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Monthly Archives: May 2017

Get-PhysicalDisk options

These are the Get-PhysicalDisk options for identifying the disk you want

-UniqueId <string>

-ObjectId <string>

-FriendlyName <string>

-InputObject <CimInstance#MSFT_PhysicalDisk>

-StorageSubsystem <CimInstance#MSFT_StorageSubsystem>

-StorageEnclosure <CimInstance#MSFT_StorageEnclosure>

-StorageNode <CimInstance#MSFT_StorageNode>

-StoragePool <CimInstance#MSFT_StoragePool>

-VirtualDisk <CimInstance#MSFT_VirtualDisk>

When dealing with disks installed in the machine then the friendly names is the easiest to use

PS> Get-PhysicalDisk | Format-List UniqueId, ObjectId, FriendlyName

UniqueId     : 60022480233DF060FE631B8A4EDD93A0
ObjectId     : {1}\\W510W16\root/Microsoft/Windows/Storage/Providers_v2\SPACES_PhysicalDisk.ObjectId="{1dab9cf6-a1b4-11e6-a890-806e6f6e6963}:PD:{12e941a8-6125-c008-8806-8868642331ef}"
FriendlyName : Msft Virtual Disk

UniqueId     : {d8e80f34-22bc-0a36-b302-d96abe30a6cc}
ObjectId     : {1}\\W510W16\root/Microsoft/Windows/Storage/Providers_v2\SPACES_PhysicalDisk.ObjectId="{1dab9cf6-a1b4-11e6-a890-806e6f6e6963}:PD:{d8e80f34-22bc-0a36-b302-d96abe30a6cc}"
FriendlyName : Samsung SSD 840 PRO Series

String casing

There are times when you may want to change string casing. You have a couple of options.

There are a couple of methods on the string class that you can use to modify the case of a string.

PS> 'aaa'.ToUpper() 
AAA

PS> 'AAA'.ToLower() 
aaa

Alternatively you can use the culture information

PS> (Get-Culture).TextInfo.ToLower('AAA') 
aaa 
 PS> (Get-Culture).TextInfo.ToUpper('aaa') 
 AAA 
 PS> (Get-Culture).TextInfo.ToTitleCase('aaa') 
Aaa

The interesting one is To Titlecase which will capitalise the first letter and make the rest lower case

PS> (Get-Culture).TextInfo.ToTitleCase('aaBaaC') 
Aabaac

At least it does for my culture settings

PS> Get-Culture

LCID             Name             DisplayName 
 ----             ----             ----------- 
 2057             en-GB            English (United Kingdom)

You’ll need to test what it does if you have a different culture setting

Build a better pull server

DSC functions in 2 modes – push (most basic) and pull. Creating a pull server is a non-trivial task and the out-of-the-box pull server has some issues. Some of the folks at powershell.org have decided its time to build a better pull server.

There’s a project on github that supplies the code for the open source, cross platform, pull server project known as tug.  pull – tug – pull… you get the picture.

You can find the project at https://github.com/PowerShellOrg/tug

If you’re using DSC download it, give it a try and feed back to the project what you’ve discovered. 

Diskpart and PowerShell – part 6: Multiple partitions on a disk

So far we’ve looked at creating a single partition on a disk. This time we’ll look at how you can create multiple partitions on a disk. The are good reasons not to do this but its something I’ve seen done on a frequent basis.

Lets create a 20GB disk as an example and mount it

New-VHD -Path C:\test\Test1.vhdx -Dynamic -SizeBytes 20GB 
Get-VHD -Path C:\test\Test1.vhdx | Mount-VHD

 

Initialise the disk

Initialize-Disk -Number 1

 

Now we can create some partitions

New-Partition -DiskNumber 1 -DriveLetter F -Size 5GB 
New-Partition -DiskNumber 1 -DriveLetter G -Size 5GB 
New-Partition -DiskNumber 1 -DriveLetter H -Size 5GB 
New-Partition -DiskNumber 1 -DriveLetter I -Size 4.87GB

 

The reason that the last partition is only 4.87 G is that 128MB of disk space is reserved

PS> Get-Partition -DiskNumber 1 | Format-Table -AutoSize


   DiskPath: \\?\scsi#disk&ven_msft&prod_virtual_disk#2&1f4adffe&0&000003#{53f56307-b6bf-11d0-94f2-00a0c91efb8b}

PartitionNumber DriveLetter Offset         Size Type 
--------------- ----------- ------         ---- ---- 
1                           17408        128 MB Reserved 
2               F           135266304      5 GB Basic 
3               G           5503975424     5 GB Basic 
4               H           10872684544    5 GB Basic 
5               I           16241393664 4.87 GB Basic

 

You can format the 4 new volumes in one pass

Get-Partition -DiskNumber 1 | 
where Type -ne 'Reserved' | 
Format-Volume -FileSystem NTFS -Confirm:$false –Force

 

PS> Get-Partition -DiskNumber 1 | Get-Volume | select DriveLetter, FileSystem, Size

DriveLetter FileSystem       Size 
----------- ----------       ---- 
          H NTFS       5368705024 
          G NTFS       5368705024 
          I NTFS       5229244416 
          F NTFS       5368705024

 

The Storage module can be used to simply and easily create multiple volumes on a disk

PowerShell in Azure Cloud Shell

if you are an Azure user see this post from the PowerShell team - https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/powershell/2017/05/23/coming-soon-powershell-in-azure-cloud-shell/

Diskpart and PowerShell – part4: Remove a partition

So far you’ve seen how to create and modify partitions and volumes. Its now time to look at how you remove a partition.

Mount the test VHD

Get-VHD -Path C:\test\Test1.vhdx | Mount-VHD

 

You can’t remove a volume – you have to remove the partition. Identifying the CORRECT partition to remove is the challenge

PS> Get-Partition | select PartitionNumber, DriveLetter, Size, Type

PartitionNumber DriveLetter         Size Type 
--------------- -----------         ---- ---- 
              1                134217728 Reserved 
              2           F   8589934592 Basic 
              1                367001600 IFS 
              2           C 511269232640 IFS 
              3                470810624 Unknown

 

Not every partition has a drive letter and partition numbers are repeated. The partition object holds the disk number

PS> Get-Partition | select DiskNumber, PartitionNumber, DriveLetter, Size, Type | Format-Table

DiskNumber PartitionNumber DriveLetter         Size Type 
---------- --------------- -----------         ---- ---- 
         1               1                134217728 Reserved 
         1               2           F   8589934592 Basic 
         0               1                367001600 IFS 
         0               2           C 511269232640 IFS 
         0               3                470810624 Unknown

 

So the combination of disk number and partition number is unique and will identify any partition. Remove our 8GB partition

Remove-Partition -DiskNumber 1 -PartitionNumber 2 -Confirm:$false

and the 128MB partition

Remove-Partition -DiskNumber 1 -PartitionNumber 1 -Confirm:$false

 

Get-Partition will show that the drive F: has been removed

Looking the disk organisation

Get-Disk -Number 1 | Select @{N='Size'; E={[math]::Round(($_.Size / 1GB), 2)}}, @{N='AllocatedSize'; E={[math]::Round(($_.AllocatedSize / 1GB), 2)}}, @{N='LargestFreeExtent'; E={[math]::Round(($_.LargestFreeExtent / 1GB), 2)}} | Format-List

Size              : 20 
AllocatedSize     : 0 
LargestFreeExtent : 20

 

The whole of the disk is now available for re-use

Diskpart and PowerShell–part 4: Expand a volume

Let’s create a new disk and mount it

New-VHD -Path C:\test\Test1.vhdx -Dynamic -SizeBytes 20GB 
Get-VHD -Path C:\test\Test1.vhdx | Mount-VHD 
Initialize-Disk -Number 1

 

This time we’ll create a volume that only uses part of the disk

New-Partition -DiskNumber 1 -DriveLetter F -Size 5GB

 

And now format the partition

Get-Partition -DriveLetter F | 
Format-Volume -FileSystem NTFS -Confirm:$false –Force

 

The disk is organised like this

Get-Disk -Number 1 | 
Select @{N='Size'; E={[math]::Round(($_.Size / 1GB), 2)}}, 
@{N='AllocatedSize'; E={[math]::Round(($_.AllocatedSize / 1GB), 2)}}, 
@{N='LargestFreeExtent'; E={[math]::Round(($_.LargestFreeExtent / 1GB), 2)}} | 
Format-List

 

Size              : 20 
AllocatedSize     : 5.13 
LargestFreeExtent : 14.87

 

Lets expand the partition

Get-Partition -DriveLetter F | 
Resize-Partition -Size 8GB

 

And re-examine the disk organisation

Get-Disk -Number 1 | 
Select @{N='Size'; E={[math]::Round(($_.Size / 1GB), 2)}}, 
@{N='AllocatedSize'; E={[math]::Round(($_.AllocatedSize / 1GB), 2)}}, 
@{N='LargestFreeExtent'; E={[math]::Round(($_.LargestFreeExtent / 1GB), 2)}} | 
Format-List

Size              : 20 
AllocatedSize     : 8.13 
LargestFreeExtent : 11.87

 

The extra space is added to the volume and formatted to match the existing filesystem on the volume

Table or List

A question on the forum asked why a object is displayed in a table if it has 4 or fewer properties and as  a list if it  has more than 4 properties:

PS> [PSCustomObject]@{P1=1; P2=2; P3=3; P4=4}

P1 P2 P3 P4 
-- -- -- -- 
1  2  3  4


PS> [PSCustomObject]@{P1=1; P2=2; P3=3; P4=4; P5=5}


P1 : 1 
P2 : 2 
P3 : 3 
P4 : 4 
P5 : 5

 

This is a built in mechanism in PowerShell and is done automatically.

 

The quick way to get the output in table format is to use Format-Table

PS> [PSCustomObject]@{P1=1; P2=2; P3=3; P4=4; P5=5} | Format-Table

P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 
-- -- -- -- -- 
1  2  3  4  5

PowerShell v6 beta

PowerShell v6 has reached a significant milestone – the release of the first PowerShell v6 beta version. There have been 18 releases of alpha code since August 2016 when the open source PowerShell v6 project started.

There is no indication of how many beta releases there will be before PowerShell v6 is ready to ship.

Code is available from https://github.com/PowerShell/PowerShell/releases

Are your domain controllers real?

A question on the forum asked about discovering if domain controllers are physical or virtual machines.

This will do the job

foreach ($domain in (Get-ADForest).domains) {
 Get-ADDomainController -filter * -server $domain |
 sort hostname  |
 foreach {
 Get-CimInstance -ClassName Win32_ComputerSystem -ComputerName $psitem.Hostname |
 select PSComputerName, Manufacturer, Model
 }
 }

 

Get the domains in your forest and then for each domain get the domain controllers. Get-ADDomainController outputs an object with a property of hostname – but you need a computername for Get-CimInstance. So, use a foreach-object and use the Hostname property as shown (you could create a property ComputerName on the pipeline object but its more work) and get the results. A virtual machine will show under the Model. You can sort or whatever once you have the results.