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Archive for CDXML

CDXML–scripting creation

Posted by: | December 5, 2013 | No Comment |

So far you’ve seen how to create CDXML files by hand – though you probably used cut and paste rather than typing everything from scratch.

Its time to bring a bit of automation to creating CDXML files. The XML is fairly simple and you’re only changing a couple of values so you can do this:

function new-cdxml {
[CmdletBinding()]
param (
[string]$class,
[string]$noun,
[string]$namespace = ‘ROOT\cimv2’,
[string]$path = "C:\Scripts\Modules\Hardware"
)

$code = @"
<?xml version=’1.0′ encoding=’utf-8′?>
<PowerShellMetadata xmlns=’http://schemas.microsoft.com/cmdlets-over-objects/2009/11′>
  <Class ClassName=’$namespace\$class’>
    <Version>1.0</Version>
    <DefaultNoun>$noun</DefaultNoun>

    <InstanceCmdlets>
      <GetCmdletParameters DefaultCmdletParameterSet=’DefaultSet’>
             
      </GetCmdletParameters>
    </InstanceCmdlets> 
  </Class>
 
</PowerShellMetadata>
"@

$file = Join-Path -Path $path -ChildPath "$class.cdxml"
Write-Verbose -Message  $file
Set-Content -Path $file -Value $code

}

I saved this as NewCDXML.ps1.  This will eventually  become the basis of a CDXML file creation module. I set defaults on the namespace and the path – feel free to change them if required.

The function is run as:

new-cdxml -class Win32_DiskDrive -noun PhysicalDisk

which produces this CDXML file

<?xml version=’1.0′ encoding=’utf-8′?>
<PowerShellMetadata xmlns=’http://schemas.microsoft.com/cmdlets-over-objects/2009/11′>
  <Class ClassName=’ROOT\cimv2\Win32_DiskDrive’>
    <Version>1.0</Version>
    <DefaultNoun>PhysicalDisk</DefaultNoun>

    <InstanceCmdlets>
      <GetCmdletParameters DefaultCmdletParameterSet=’DefaultSet’>
             
      </GetCmdletParameters>
    </InstanceCmdlets> 
  </Class>
 
</PowerShellMetadata>

 

The Hardware.psd1 file needs to be altered:

# Modules to import as nested modules of the module specified in RootModule/ModuleToProcess
NestedModules = @(‘Win32_BIOS.cdxml’,
                   ‘Win32_ComputerSystem.cdxml’,
                   ‘Win32_DiskDrive.cdxml’
                    )

 

and

# Functions to export from this module
FunctionsToExport = @(‘Get-Bios’,
                      ‘Get-ComputerSystem’,
                      ‘Get-PhysicalDisk’
                      )

 

The module now looks like this:

£> Get-Command -Module Hardware

CommandType      Name
———–                —-
Function                Get-Bios
Function                Get-ComputerSystem
Function                Get-PhysicalDisk

 

This makes creating additional components for your module much easier.

under: CDXML, PowerShell and CIM, PowerShell and WMI, PowerShell V3, PowerShellV2

Continuing the creation of a Hardware investigation module – its a simple matter to add a cmdlet to retrieve the computer system data ie Win32_ComputerSystem

First create a CDXML file like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<PowerShellMetadata xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/cmdlets-over-objects/2009/11">
  <Class ClassName="ROOT\cimv2\Win32_ComputerSystem">
    <Version>1.0</Version>
    <DefaultNoun>ComputerSystem</DefaultNoun>

    <InstanceCmdlets>
      <GetCmdletParameters DefaultCmdletParameterSet="DefaultSet">
             
      </GetCmdletParameters>
    </InstanceCmdlets> 
  </Class>
 
</PowerShellMetadata>

 

The only difference from the Win32_BIOS.cdxml is the WMI class and the default noun

Save in your Hardware module folder as Win32_ComputerSystem.cdxml

Modify the hardware.psd1 file in two places –

NestedModules = @(‘Win32_BIOS.cdxml’,
                  ‘Win32_ComputerSystem.cdxml’ )

 

AND

FunctionsToExport = @(‘Get-Bios’,
                      ‘Get-ComputerSystem’)

Save the hardware.psd1 file.

Now when you open up PowerShell

£> Get-Command -Module Hardware

CommandType     Name                  ModuleName
———–     —-                  ———-
Function        Get-Bios              Hardware
Function        Get-ComputerSystem    Hardware

 

£> Get-ComputerSystem | Format-List

Domain              : Manticore.org
Manufacturer        : Microsoft Corporation
Model               : Virtual Machine
Name                : WIN81
PrimaryOwnerName    : Richard
TotalPhysicalMemory : 1857605632

Note default display is a table.

For now we’ll keep adding investigative cmdlets to our module – though there are some methods on Win32_ComputerSystem we’ll be adding to our module later.

under: CDXML, PowerShell and CIM, PowerShell and WMI, PowerShell V3, PowerShell v4

CDXML: Module Manifest

Posted by: | November 30, 2013 | No Comment |

Last time we created a module using CDXML to wrap the Win32_Bios WMI class. This gave us a cmdlet – Get-Bios.  As the intention is to create a number of modules that expose the WMI classes related to hardware we need a module manifest file (.psd1) to load them so that we can take advantage of module auto-loading in PowerShell 3 & 4

Remember – one WMI class per CDXML file and each CDXML file is treated as a module

I find the easiest way to create new manifest is run New-ModuleManifest and give it the full path to the psd1 file you want to create

 

New-ModuleManifest -Path C:\scripts\Modules\Hardware\Hardware.psd1 –PassThru

 

You can then open the file in ISE and edit to give this:

#
# Module manifest for module ‘Hardware’
#
# Generated by: richard
#
# Generated on: 30/11/2013
#

@{

# Script module or binary module file associated with this manifest.
# RootModule = ”

# Version number of this module.
ModuleVersion = ‘1.0’

# ID used to uniquely identify this module
GUID = ‘55512ad7-c2aa-4678-818f-8f19b4f110dd’

# Author of this module
Author = ‘Richard’

# Company or vendor of this module
CompanyName = ‘Macdui’

# Copyright statement for this module
Copyright = ‘(c) 2013 Richard. All rights reserved.’

# Description of the functionality provided by this module
# Description = ”

# Minimum version of the Windows PowerShell engine required by this module
# PowerShellVersion = ”

# Name of the Windows PowerShell host required by this module
# PowerShellHostName = ”

# Minimum version of the Windows PowerShell host required by this module
# PowerShellHostVersion = ”

# Minimum version of Microsoft .NET Framework required by this module
# DotNetFrameworkVersion = ”

# Minimum version of the common language runtime (CLR) required by this module
# CLRVersion = ”

# Processor architecture (None, X86, Amd64) required by this module
# ProcessorArchitecture = ”

# Modules that must be imported into the global environment prior to importing this module
# RequiredModules = @()

# Assemblies that must be loaded prior to importing this module
# RequiredAssemblies = @()

# Script files (.ps1) that are run in the caller’s environment prior to importing this module.
# ScriptsToProcess = @()

# Type files (.ps1xml) to be loaded when importing this module
# TypesToProcess = @()

# Format files (.ps1xml) to be loaded when importing this module
# FormatsToProcess = @()

# Modules to import as nested modules of the module specified in RootModule/ModuleToProcess
NestedModules = @(‘Win32_BIOS.cdxml’)

# Functions to export from this module
FunctionsToExport = @(‘Get-Bios’)

# Cmdlets to export from this module
CmdletsToExport = ‘*’

# Variables to export from this module
VariablesToExport = ‘*’

# Aliases to export from this module
AliasesToExport = ‘*’

# List of all modules packaged with this module
# ModuleList = @()

# List of all files packaged with this module
# FileList = @()

# Private data to pass to the module specified in RootModule/ModuleToProcess
# PrivateData = ”

# HelpInfo URI of this module
# HelpInfoURI = ”

# Default prefix for commands exported from this module. Override the default prefix using Import-Module -Prefix.
# DefaultCommandPrefix = ”

}

 

You can cut out the items you don’t need but I prefer to leave them as reminders of the commands.

Once the file is modified – save it back as Hardware.psd1

Start a new PowerShell console and your new module is available for use immediately.

This also means that you can add new CDXML files and test them independently of the module. Once you’re happy with the new functionality you add the appropriate lines to the module manifest.

under: CDXML, Modules, PowerShell and CIM, PowerShell and WMI, PowerShell V3, PowerShell v4

CDXML

Posted by: | November 30, 2013 | No Comment |

Its been stated many times that over 60% of the modules in PowerShell 3 & 4 are created using CDXML – objects-over-cmdlets.

This involves taking a WMI class and wrapping it in XML to create a PowerShell module. At this time many admins are running for the door but it really isn’t that difficult.

Most admins will have used the Win32_Bios class

£> Get-CimInstance -ClassName Win32_Bios

SMBIOSBIOSVersion : 090006
Manufacturer      : American Megatrends Inc.
Name              : BIOS Date: 05/23/12 17:15:53  Ver: 09.00.06
SerialNumber      : 5518-5018-0990-2526-2313-2106-44
Version           : VRTUAL – 5001223

 

To create a CDXML file type this in ISE:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<PowerShellMetadata xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/cmdlets-over-objects/2009/11">
  <Class ClassName="ROOT\cimv2\Win32_BIOS">
    <Version>1.0</Version>
    <DefaultNoun>Bios</DefaultNoun>

    <InstanceCmdlets>
      <GetCmdletParameters DefaultCmdletParameterSet="DefaultSet">
             
      </GetCmdletParameters>
    </InstanceCmdlets> 
  </Class>
 
</PowerShellMetadata>

 

Everything is boiler plate except two lines:

<Class ClassName="ROOT\cimv2\Win32_BIOS">
which shows the namespace and the class you are using

 

   <DefaultNoun>Bios</DefaultNoun>

which sets the NOUN of the PowerShell cmdlet you are producing. The verb is automatically set to GET.

I keep all my scripts in a folder called c:\scripts – this has subfolders by category. I also amend my module path in my PowerShell profile

$env:PSModulePath = "C:\Scripts\Modules;" + $env:PSModulePath

to add the \scripts\modules folder. This folder has all of the module I develop to keep them separate from the Microsoft modules.

 

I’m creating a module called Hardware that will contain a suite of CDXML files for accessing WMI classes related to hardware.

I saved the XML above to C:\Scripts\Modules\Hardware\Win32_BIOS.cdxml

For testing I change directory the C:\Scripts\Modules\Hardware folder and I can test my new module.

£> Import-Module .\Win32_BIOS.cdxml
£> Get-Command -Module Win32_BIOS

CommandType     Name                   ModuleName
———–     —-                   ———-
Function        Get-Bios               Win32_BIOS

 

Running Get-Bios produces:

£> get-bios

SMBIOSBIOSVersion : 090006
Manufacturer      : American Megatrends Inc.
Name              : BIOS Date: 05/23/12 17:15:53  Ver: 09.00.06
SerialNumber      : 5518-5018-0990-2526-2313-2106-44
Version           : VRTUAL – 5001223

 

Exactly the same as using Get-CimInstance.

You also get a set of free functionality (meaning you don’t have to do anything)

£> Get-Command Get-Bios -Syntax

Get-Bios [-CimSession <CimSession[]>] [-ThrottleLimit <int>] [-AsJob] [<CommonParameters>]

£> $sess = New-CimSession -ComputerName server02
£> Get-Bios -CimSession $sess

SMBIOSBIOSVersion : 6NET61WW (1.24 )
Manufacturer      : LENOVO
Name              : Ver 1.00PARTTBLX
SerialNumber      : R81BG3K
Version           : LENOVO – 1240
PSComputerName    : server02

 

The properties displayed are controlled by the PowerShell formatting system as with most WMI classes. You can display all data:

Get-Bios | Format-List *

 

Next time we’ll create a module manifest file to enable module auto-loading

under: CDXML, PowerShell and WMI, PowerShell V3, PowerShell v4

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