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PowerShell v5

Updating built in modules

Windows 10 and Server 2016 automatically install a module called Pester which is used for testing code. Its the foundation of Test Driven Development or Behaviour Driven Development using PowerShell.

The version  installed by default is 3.4.0.

Pester is originally an open source module that has been incorporated into Windows. The latest version from the PowerShell Gallery is 4.0.2

Normally you’d use Update-Module to install the new version BUT you didn’t install pester from the gallery using Install-Module so you’ll get a big fat error message.

The answer is to use

Install-Module pester –Force

You might still get an error message about the Pester module not being catalog signed. if you do and still want the latest version then use

Install-Module pester -Force -SkipPublisherCheck

PowerShell classes

I’ve just had an article on PowerShell classes published on the UK TechNet bog - https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/uktechnet/2016/09/29/powershell-classes/

Update-Help errors

One the latest build of Windows 10 – 14296 I’m getting errors when updating help. Three modules don’t seem to have help available

 

Update-Help : Failed to update Help for the module(s) 'Microsoft.PowerShell.Operation.Validation'
with UI culture(s) {en-GB} : The value of the HelpInfoUri key in the module manifest must resolve to
a container or root URL on a website where the help files are stored. The HelpInfoUri
'https://www.msn.com/en-gb/?ocid=NEFLS000' does not resolve to a container.
At line:1 char:1
+ Update-Help -Force
+ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    + CategoryInfo          : InvalidOperation: (:) [Update-Help], Exception
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : InvalidHelpInfoUri,Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.UpdateHelpCommand

 

Update-Help : Failed to update Help for the module(s) 'PSScriptAnalyzer' with UI culture(s) {en-US}
: The Help content at the specified location is not valid. Specify a location that contains valid
Help Content.
At line:1 char:1
+ Update-Help -Force
+ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    + CategoryInfo          : InvalidData: (:) [Update-Help], Exception
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : HelpContentXmlValidationFailure,Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.UpdateHe
   lpCommand

 

Update-Help : Failed to update Help for the module(s) 'SecureBoot' with UI culture(s) {en-GB} :
Unable to retrieve the HelpInfo XML file for UI culture en-GB. Make sure the HelpInfoUri property in
the module manifest is valid or check your network connection and then try the command again.
At line:1 char:1
+ Update-Help -Force
+ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    + CategoryInfo          : ResourceUnavailable: (:) [Update-Help], Exception
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : UnableToRetrieveHelpInfoXml,Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.UpdateHelpCo
   mmand

 

I’ve checked and the help isn’t available for en-US culture.

Unregistering the default repository–PS version dependent?

In this post - https://richardspowershellblog.wordpress.com/2016/09/17/powershell-repositories/ – I stated that you could unregister the default PowerShell repository.

 

I also said that the statement in the documentation for Unregister-PSrepository that you couldn’t unregister PSGallery was incorrect.

 

A couple of readers have left comments stating that they tried it and got an error message stating that PSGallery can’t be unregistered.

 

I did my first test on Windows 10 latest preview build – build 14926

PS> $PSVersionTable

Name                           Value
----                           -----
PSVersion                      5.1.14926.1000
PSEdition                      Desktop
PSCompatibleVersions           {1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0...}
BuildVersion                   10.0.14926.1000
CLRVersion                     4.0.30319.42000
WSManStackVersion              3.0
PSRemotingProtocolVersion      2.3
SerializationVersion           1.1.0.1

 

I’ve just test on Windows Server 2016 TP5

PS C:\Windows\system32> $PSVersionTable

Name                           Value
----                           -----
PSVersion                      5.1.14300.1000
PSEdition                      Desktop
PSCompatibleVersions           {1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0...}
CLRVersion                     4.0.30319.42000
BuildVersion                   10.0.14300.1000
WSManStackVersion              3.0
PSRemotingProtocolVersion      2.3
SerializationVersion           1.1.0.1

 

The version of PowerShell 5.1 on Server 2016 TP5 doesn’t have the –Default parameter on Register-PSrepositiry but this works

Register-PSRepository -Name PSGallery -SourceLocation https://www.powershellgallery.com/api/v2/

 

It appears that the ability to unregister the default repository and then re-register it is an evolving feature in PowerShell 5.1

PowerShell repositories

A reader on my blog asked if you can unregister the default PowerShell repository so you just use an internal repository.

 

First off – PSGallery is the default repository

PS> Get-PSRepository | Format-List

Name                      : PSGallery
SourceLocation            : https://www.powershellgallery.com/api/v2/
Trusted                   : False
Registered                : True
InstallationPolicy        : Untrusted
PackageManagementProvider : NuGet
PublishLocation           : https://www.powershellgallery.com/api/v2/package/
ScriptSourceLocation      : https://www.powershellgallery.com/api/v2/items/psscript/
ScriptPublishLocation     : https://www.powershellgallery.com/api/v2/package/
ProviderOptions           : {}

 

According to the documentation for Unregister-PSRepository you CAN’T unregister the default repository. In fact you can – the documentation appears to be incorrect

 

You can unregister PSGallery  with

Get-PSRepository -Name PSGallery | Unregister-PSRepository

NOTE You have to do this on a user by user basis

 

If you decide you need the default repository again then you can register it like this:

Register-PSRepository –Default

.psd1 files

.psd1 files are usually used as module manifests

You can test the manifest

PS>  Test-ModuleManifest -Path 'C:\Program Files\WindowsPowerShell\Modules\Pester\3.4.0\Pester.psd1' | fl

Name              : Pester
Path              : C:\Program Files\WindowsPowerShell\Modules\Pester\3.4.0\Pester.psd1
Description       : Pester provides a framework for running BDD style Tests to execute and validate PowerShell commands inside of PowerShell and offers a powerful set of Mocking Functions that allow tests to mimic and mock the  functionality of any command inside of a piece of powershell code being tested. Pester tests can execute any command or script that is accesible to a pester test file. This can include functions, Cmdlets,  Modules and scripts. Pester can be run in ad hoc style in a console or it can be integrated into the Build scripts of a Continuous Integration system.
ModuleType        : Script
Version           : 3.4.0
NestedModules     : {}
ExportedFunctions : {Describe, Context, It, Should...}
ExportedCmdlets   :
ExportedVariables : {Path, TagFilter, ExcludeTagFilter, TestNameFilter...}
ExportedAliases   :

 

or you can view the whole output

 

PS>  Test-ModuleManifest -Path 'C:\Program Files\WindowsPowerShell\Modules\Pester\3.4.0\Pester.psd1' | fl *

LogPipelineExecutionDetails : False
Name                        : Pester
Path                        : C:\Program Files\WindowsPowerShell\Modules\Pester\3.4.0\Pester.psd1
ImplementingAssembly        :
Definition                  :
Description       : Pester provides a framework for running BDD style Tests to execute and validate PowerShell commands inside of PowerShell and offers a powerful set of Mocking Functions that allow tests to mimic and mock the  functionality of any command inside of a piece of powershell code being tested. Pester tests can execute any command or script that is accesible to a pester test file. This can include functions, Cmdlets,  Modules and scripts. Pester can be run in ad hoc style in a console or it can be integrated into the Build scripts of a Continuous Integration system.
Guid                        : a699dea5-2c73-4616-a270-1f7abb777e71
HelpInfoUri                 :
ModuleBase                  : C:\Program Files\WindowsPowerShell\Modules\Pester\3.4.0
PrivateData                 : {PSData}
Tags                        : {powershell, unit testing, bdd, tdd...}
ProjectUri                  : https://github.com/Pester/Pester
IconUri                     : http://pesterbdd.com/images/Pester.png
LicenseUri                  : http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.html
ReleaseNotes                :
RepositorySourceLocation    :
Version                     : 3.4.0
ModuleType                  : Script
Author                      : Pester Team
AccessMode                  : ReadWrite
ClrVersion                  :
CompanyName                 : Pester
Copyright                   : Copyright (c) 2016 by Pester Team, licensed under Apache 2.0 License.
DotNetFrameworkVersion      :
ExportedFunctions           : {[Describe, Describe], [Context, Context], [It, It], [Should, Should]...}
Prefix                      :
ExportedCmdlets             : {}
ExportedCommands            : {[Describe, Describe], [Context, Context], [It, It], [Should, Should]...}
FileList                    : {}
CompatiblePSEditions        : {}
ModuleList                  : {}
NestedModules               : {}
PowerShellHostName          :
PowerShellHostVersion       :
PowerShellVersion           : 2.0
ProcessorArchitecture       : None
Scripts                     : {}
RequiredAssemblies          : {}
RequiredModules             : {}
RootModule                  : Pester.psm1
ExportedVariables           : {[Path, ], [TagFilter, ], [ExcludeTagFilter, ], [TestNameFilter, ]...}
ExportedAliases             : {}
ExportedWorkflows           : {}
ExportedDscResources        : {}
SessionState                :
OnRemove                    :
ExportedFormatFiles         : {}
ExportedTypeFiles           : {}

 

You can also import the contents of the .psd1 file

PS>  Import-PowerShellDataFile -Path 'C:\Program Files\WindowsPowerShell\Modules\Pester\3.4.0\Pester.psd1'

Name                           Value                                                                                          
----                           -----                                                                                          
Copyright                      Copyright (c) 2016 by Pester Team, licensed under Apache 2.0 License.                          
ModuleToProcess                Pester.psm1                                                                                    
PrivateData                    {PSData}                                                                                       
PowerShellVersion              2.0                                                                                            
CompanyName                    Pester                                                                                         
GUID                           a699dea5-2c73-4616-a270-1f7abb777e71                                                           
Author                         Pester Team                                                                                    
FunctionsToExport              {Describe, Context, It, Should...}                                                             
VariablesToExport              {Path, TagFilter, ExcludeTagFilter, TestNameFilter...}                                         
Description                    Pester provides a framework for running BDD style Tests to execute and validate PowerShell co...
ModuleVersion                  3.4.0 

 

which in some ways is more useful as you can easily see what is actually in the manifets rather than dealing with a lot of empty properties.

 

You can create .psd1 files to hold other data and read them with Import-PowerShellDataFile. Default parameters for your favourite cmdlets is one thing that comes to mind

Get-ComputerInfo

One of the new items in PowerShell 5.1 is the Get-ComputerInfo cmdlet

PS>  Get-Command Get-ComputerInfo -Syntax

Get-ComputerInfo [[-Property] <string[]>] [<CommonParameters>]

 

PS>  Get-ComputerInfo

WindowsBuildLabEx                                       : 14393.0.amd64fre.rs1_release.160715-1616
WindowsCurrentVersion                                   : 6.3
WindowsEditionId                                        : Professional
WindowsInstallationType                                 : Client
WindowsInstallDateFromRegistry                          : 19/07/2016 12:27:55
WindowsProductId                                        : XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
WindowsProductName                                      : Windows 10 Pro
WindowsRegisteredOrganization                           :
WindowsRegisteredOwner                                  : XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

WindowsSystemRoot                                       : C:\WINDOWS
BiosCharacteristics                                     : {7, 11, 12, 15...}
BiosBIOSVersion                                         : {OEMA - 1072009, 2.05.0250, American
                                                          Megatrends - 4028E}
BiosBuildNumber                                         :
BiosCaption                                             : 2.05.0250
BiosCodeSet                                             :
BiosCurrentLanguage                                     : en|US|iso8859-1
BiosDescription                                         : 2.05.0250
BiosEmbeddedControllerMajorVersion                      : 255
BiosEmbeddedControllerMinorVersion                      : 255
BiosFirmwareType                                        : Uefi
BiosIdentificationCode                                  :
BiosInstallableLanguages                                : 1
BiosInstallDate                                         :
BiosLanguageEdition                                     :
BiosListOfLanguages                                     : {en|US|iso8859-1}
BiosManufacturer                                        : American Megatrends Inc.
BiosName                                                : 2.05.0250
BiosOtherTargetOS                                       :
BiosPrimaryBIOS                                         : True
BiosReleaseDate                                         : 10/04/2015 01:00:00
BiosSeralNumber                                         : 036685734653
BiosSMBIOSBIOSVersion                                   : 2.05.0250
BiosSMBIOSMajorVersion                                  : 2
BiosSMBIOSMinorVersion                                  : 7
BiosSMBIOSPresent                                       : True
BiosSoftwareElementState                                : Running
BiosStatus                                              : OK
BiosSystemBiosMajorVersion                              : 2
BiosSystemBiosMinorVersion                              : 5
BiosTargetOperatingSystem                               : 0
BiosVersion                                             : OEMA - 1072009
CsAdminPasswordStatus                                   : Unknown
CsAutomaticManagedPagefile                              : True
CsAutomaticResetBootOption                              : True
CsAutomaticResetCapability                              : True
CsBootOptionOnLimit                                     :
CsBootOptionOnWatchDog                                  :
CsBootROMSupported                                      : True
CsBootStatus                                            : {0, 0, 0, 0...}
CsBootupState                                           : Normal boot
CsCaption                                               : RSSURFACEPRO2
CsChassisBootupState                                    : Safe
CsChassisSKUNumber                                      : Surface_Pro_2
CsCurrentTimeZone                                       : 60
CsDaylightInEffect                                      : True
CsDescription                                           : AT/AT COMPATIBLE
CsDNSHostName                                           : RSsurfacePro2
CsDomain                                                : WORKGROUP
CsDomainRole                                            : StandaloneWorkstation
CsEnableDaylightSavingsTime                             : True
CsFrontPanelResetStatus                                 : Unknown
CsHypervisorPresent                                     : False
CsInfraredSupported                                     : False
CsInitialLoadInfo                                       :
CsInstallDate                                           :
CsKeyboardPasswordStatus                                : Unknown
CsLastLoadInfo                                          :
CsManufacturer                                          : Microsoft Corporation
CsModel                                                 : Surface Pro 2
CsName                                                  : RSSURFACEPRO2
CsNetworkAdapters                                       : {USB Ethernet, WiFi, Bluetooth Network
                                                          Connection}
CsNetworkServerModeEnabled                              : True
CsNumberOfLogicalProcessors                             : 4
CsNumberOfProcessors                                    : 1
CsProcessors                                            : {Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-4200U CPU @ 1.60GHz}
CsOEMStringArray                                        : {EU}
CsPartOfDomain                                          : False
CsPauseAfterReset                                       : -1
CsPCSystemType                                          : Mobile
CsPCSystemTypeEx                                        : Slate
CsPowerManagementCapabilities                           :
CsPowerManagementSupported                              :
CsPowerOnPasswordStatus                                 : Unknown
CsPowerState                                            : Unknown
CsPowerSupplyState                                      : Safe
CsPrimaryOwnerContact                                   :
CsPrimaryOwnerName                                      : XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
CsResetCapability                                       : Other
CsResetCount                                            : -1
CsResetLimit                                            : -1
CsRoles                                                 : {LM_Workstation, LM_Server, NT,
                                                          Potential_Browser...}
CsStatus                                                : OK
CsSupportContactDescription                             :
CsSystemFamily                                          : Surface
CsSystemSKUNumber                                       : Surface_Pro_2
CsSystemType                                            : x64-based PC
CsThermalState                                          : Safe
CsTotalPhysicalMemory                                   : 8506093568
CsPhyicallyInstalledMemory                              : 8388608
CsUserName                                              : RSsurfacePro2\Richard
CsWakeUpType                                            : PowerSwitch
CsWorkgroup                                             : WORKGROUP
OsName                                                  : Microsoft Windows 10 Pro
OsType                                                  : WINNT
OsOperatingSystemSKU                                    : 48
OsVersion                                               : 10.0.14393
OsCSDVersion                                            :
OsBuildNumber                                           : 14393
OsHotFixes                                              : {KB3176927}
OsBootDevice                                            : \Device\HarddiskVolume2
OsSystemDevice                                          : \Device\HarddiskVolume4
OsSystemDirectory                                       : C:\WINDOWS\system32
OsSystemDrive                                           : C:
OsWindowsDirectory                                      : C:\WINDOWS
OsCountryCode                                           : 44
OsCurrentTimeZone                                       : 60
OsLocaleID                                              : 0809
OsLocale                                                : en-GB
OsLocalDateTime                                         : 28/07/2016 14:30:32
OsLastBootUpTime                                        : 27/07/2016 09:02:45
OsUptime                                                : 1.05:27:47.0631253
OsBuildType                                             : Multiprocessor Free
OsCodeSet                                               : 1252
OsDataExecutionPreventionAvailable                      : True
OsDataExecutionPrevention32BitApplications              : True
OsDataExecutionPreventionDrivers                        : True
OsDataExecutionPreventionSupportPolicy                  : OptIn
OsDebug                                                 : False
OsDistributed                                           : False
OsEncryptionLevel                                       : 256
OsForegroundApplicationBoost                            : Maximum
OsTotalVisibleMemorySize                                : 8306732
OsFreePhysicalMemory                                    : 5530384
OsTotalVirtualMemorySize                                : 9617452
OsFreeVirtualMemory                                     : 6525292
OsInUseVirtualMemory                                    : 3092160
OsTotalSwapSpaceSize                                    :
OsSizeStoredInPagingFiles                               : 1310720
OsFreeSpaceInPagingFiles                                : 1274160
OsPagingFiles                                           : {C:\pagefile.sys}
OsHardwareAbstractionLayer                              : 10.0.14393.0
OsInstallDate                                           : 19/07/2016 13:27:55
OsManufacturer                                          : Microsoft Corporation
OsMaxNumberOfProcesses                                  : 4294967295
OsMaxProcessMemorySize                                  : 137438953344
OsMuiLanguages                                          : {en-GB}
OsNumberOfLicensedUsers                                 :
OsNumberOfProcesses                                     : 77
OsNumberOfUsers                                         : 2
OsOrganization                                          :
OsArchitecture                                          : 64-bit
OsLanguage                                              : en-GB
OsProductSuites                                         : {TerminalServicesSingleSession}
OsOtherTypeDescription                                  :
OsPAEEnabled                                            :
OsPortableOperatingSystem                               : False
OsPrimary                                               : True
OsProductType                                           : WorkStation
OsRegisteredUser                                        : XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
OsSerialNumber                                          : 00330-80000-00000-AA844
OsServicePackMajorVersion                               : 0
OsServicePackMinorVersion                               : 0
OsStatus                                                : OK
OsSuites                                                : {TerminalServices,
                                                          TerminalServicesSingleSession}
OsServerLevel                                           :
KeyboardLayout                                          : en-GB
TimeZone                                                : (UTC+00:00) Dublin, Edinburgh, Lisbon,
                                                          London
LogonServer                                             : \\RSSURFACEPRO2
PowerPlatformRole                                       : Slate
HyperVisorPresent                                       : False
HyperVRequirementDataExecutionPreventionAvailable       : True
HyperVRequirementSecondLevelAddressTranslation          : True
HyperVRequirementVirtualizationFirmwareEnabled          : True
HyperVRequirementVMMonitorModeExtensions                : True
DeviceGuardSmartStatus                                  : Off
DeviceGuardRequiredSecurityProperties                   :
DeviceGuardAvailableSecurityProperties                  :
DeviceGuardSecurityServicesConfigured                   :
DeviceGuardSecurityServicesRunning                      :
DeviceGuardCodeIntegrityPolicyEnforcementStatus         :
DeviceGuardUserModeCodeIntegrityPolicyEnforcementStatus :

 

You can use the –Property parameter to restrict output

PS>  Get-ComputerInfo -Property OsArchitecture, OsUptime

OsArchitecture OsUptime
-------------- --------
64-bit         1.05:34:53.9424271

 

Wild cards are allowed so this works and lists all properties starting with OS

Get-ComputerInfo -Property Os*

 

Looking at the output it seems to be a collection of properties from a number of CIM classes. Might be fun to track down what comes from where one rainy day

PowerShell 5.1 preview

Windows 10 shipped with PowerShell 5.0 installed. The latest preview builds, and presumably, next months anniversary update have had PowerShell 5.1. Windows 2016 TP5 also ships with PowerShell 5.1

A PowerShell 5.1 preview is now available for Windows 7, 8.1, 2008 R2, 2012 and 2012 R2

Details from

https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/powershell/2016/07/16/announcing-windows-management-framework-wmf-5-1-preview/

PowerShell in Action–Deal of the Day-23 July 2016

Deal of the Day July 23: Half off my book Windows PowerShell in Action, Third Edition. Use code dotd072316au at http://bit.ly/2afnOPj

 

Deal of the Day details at https://www.manning.com/dotd

Parallel copy files over remoting session

In response to this post - https://richardspowershellblog.wordpress.com/2015/05/28/copy-files-over-ps-remoting-sessions/

 

I was asked how you could copy files in parallel to multiple machines.

 

As soon as anyone mentions parallelism I think of workflows so I ended up with this

$computers = 'W16TP5TGT01', 'W16TP5TGT02'

workflow parallelcopy {
  param ([string[]]$computername)
  foreach -parallel ($computer in $computername) {
     InlineScript {
       $s = New-PSSession -ComputerName $using:computer
       Copy-Item -Path C:\Scripts\New-NanoMachine.ps1 -Destination C:\Source -ToSession $s
       Remove-PSSession -Session $s
     }
  }
}

parallelcopy -computername $computers

 

A couple of issues I found. First off –Tosession and –FromSession haven’t been added to the Copy-Item workflow activity. This means you have to use an Inline script block to access those parameters

 

Secondly accessing a emoting session created outside of the workflow generates a session busy error when trying to perform the copy so have to move the session creation into the Inline script.

 

If you had a lot of files, or a lot of data, to copy to multiple machines this approach may be worthwhile. For small amounts of data then the approach in the original article is probably best.