Web Sphere on Windows Server 2003.

IBM WebSphere runs just fine on Windows 2003.




Microsoft® Windows 2000® Server with Service Pack 4, Windows 2000® Advanced Server with Service Pack 4, Windows Server 2003, Enterprise or Windows Server 2003, Standard


Intel Pentium® processor at 500MHz or faster, minimum of 596MB available disk space for installation (including IBM Software Developer Kit), minimum of 256MB memory, 512MB recommended, CD-ROM drive

New Technical Article

Strong Names and Security in the .NET Framework
Strong names are required to uniquely identify an assembly, allowing it to be placed in the Global Assembly Cache, and are also required to use the versioning system in the Microsoft .NET Framework common language runtime. Learn more about strong names and how to use them.
Article. Dec 19, 2003.

Ready or Not, Here Comes the CLR
One of the most-anticipated yet least-understood features of the upcoming Yukon release of SQL Server is its integration of the Common Language Runtime (CLR). This is an extremely rich topic, covering many new features and functions for database administrators and developers. As you probably know by now, Yukon is based on the Microsoft .NET Framework and provides new features that go beyond the capabilities of SQL Server 2000.
Article. Dec 19, 2003.

ASP.NET Webcast Week Coming in January
Learn about ASP.NET from the experts! These free events are live and interactive. Live code demos and attendees asking in depth engaging questions are all part of this live event. This is a great way to get educated, engaged, and enlightened on Microsoft developer tools.
Video. Dec 19, 2003.

AmberPoint Releases Free Web Services Management Software For Visual Studio Users
AmberPoint Express is a free product for monitoring, diagnosing & troubleshooting Web services. It’s a Visual Studio Add-in and will be distributed by MSFT with Whidbey. It helps developers that are building and deploying .NET Web services. Basic features include performance monitoring, error and bottleneck analysis, SOAP diagnostics, testing and integration with Visual Studio.
Product Release. Dec 19, 2003.

Desaware Releases SpyWorks Professional 7.1
Includes the following enhancements: New hook types: Low Level Keyboard, Low Level Mouse, and Foreground Idle hooks for both COM controls and .NET. Plus a native .NET subclasser and windows hook component. Support for Visual Studio .NET 1.0 and 1.1. Separate components, assemblies, and sample projects included for each version of Visual Studio .NET with each item compiled using its respective version. $379.00 USD.
Product Release. Dec 19, 2003.

deloittes.NET ColorPicker v1.0
Visual color selection for your ASP.NET web forms. Support for ASP.NET events, viewstate and postbacks. Compatible with a variety of web browsers including as IE 4+, Opera and Netscape 6+.
Product Release. Dec 19, 2003.

deloittes.NET MenuBar v1.0
100% XML based server control for easily adding rich attractive DHTML driven menu systems for your ASP.NET web sites or web applications. This flexible control can be customized to fit within virtually any existing design and requires no knowledge of Javascript, DHTML or CSS.
Product Release. Dec 19, 2003.

Displaying a Directory Structure in a DataGrid
In this article, the author covers the concept of obtaining the directory structure and displaying it in a DataGrid.
Article. Dec 18, 2003.

A Simple Business Rules Manager
The author shows how you can use delegates to build a simple rules engine to centralize the validation logic in your application.
Article. Dec 18, 2003.

Coding in the Blue Glow
The author describes how to control a serial-port–connected LED panel using Microsoft Visual Basic .NET and Microsoft Visual C# .NET.
Article. Dec 18, 2003.

Porting web application to different database server
This article describes author’s considerations about porting web applications from one database server to another avoiding horror of rewriting all elements.
Article. Dec 18, 2003.

Realizing a Service-Oriented Architecture with .NET
This article is meant to be a practical discussion guide to building a .NET application in a service-oriented architecture. We will consider real-world goals, real-world obstacles, and experience-based solutions. This paper is focused on application development, not application integration. We will specifically consider architectural issues and component design issues.
Article. Dec 18, 2003.

Exploring SQL Server Yukon T-SQL Enhancements
By now you must have heard that you can write Yukon stored procedures in any CLR language like C# or VB .NET. This is great news if you have never mastered T-SQL, right? I hate to be the bearer of bad news, but CLR Stored Procedures are not a cure-all.
Article. Dec 18, 2003.

Product Review: “Desaware Licensing System .NET”
Managing software licenses correctly for your applications can be difficult. Desaware’s Licensing System provides a well-designed infrastructure for a solid system that handles many licensing scenarios successfully.
Review. Dec 18, 2003.

Aspose.Word 1.0 Released!
Aspose.Word is the .Net Word document reporting component which enables you to read and write Word documents without utilizing Microsoft Word. Its 1.0 version includes: File formats in Word 97, 2000, XP, text, browser; Mail merge from a dataset or an array of values; Character formatting, paragraph formatting and section formatting.
Press Release. Dec 18, 2003.

jb2 Web Questions for ASP.NET v2.0 Release Adds Powerful Data Collection Controls to ASP.NET Developers Toolbox
jb2 Web Questions for ASP.NET v2.0 is a collection of ASP.NET Server Controls that streamline the collection of data from online registrations, customer support and feedback forms, surveys, evaluations, questionnaires, e-training exams, and more. Simply drop jb2 Web Questions controls onto your WebForm and data-bind or fill-in question and response text to rapidly prototype your web application. Then scroll through pre-defined themes to transform your prototype into the final look you want.
Product Release. Dec 18, 2003.

nGallery v1.5 Released
nGallery is a freeware, open source implementation of a image gallery written purely in managed .NET and C#. nGallery provides a solution to store and display your image galleries on your own Web site.This release features many new enhancements include sub-albums, picture ratings, slide shows, picture view counts, an improved admin interface, image scaling enhancements, and much more.
Product Release. Dec 18, 2003.

Announcing New dtSearch Product Line Version
dtSearch announces Version 6.3 of its dtSearch product line that includes Text Retrieval Engine for Win & .NET. Release Adds New Language Analyzer Developer API; More User-Friendly “Zero Footprint” CD/DVD Publishing; More Efficient Multi-Threaded Searching of Large Data Sets on High Traffic Web Sites.
Press Release. Dec 18, 2003.

deloittes.NET WhoIs v1.0
Intelligent whois& domain name lookup functionality. Automatic whois server detection, multi-threaded whois lookup and the ability to query and display individual or multiple domain names per request using RFC954 compliant standards.
Product Release. Dec 18, 2003.

Using the new template feature of ASP.NET 2.0 to create better web sites
In ASP.NET Whidbey, there is a new feature known as Master and Content Pages. This feature addresses the limitations of using user controls for headers and navigational menu information. In Whidbey, you can simply construct a Master page to include your page header information. You then build your page normally using Content pages, which will automatically include the header information defined by the Master page.
Article. Dec 17, 2003.

Application Interoperability: Microsoft .NET and J2EE
Enable interoperability between enterprise-class applications based on Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) and Microsoft .NET. Covers interoperability at the presentation, business, and data tiers.
Article. Dec 17, 2003.

Evolve Custom Controls in ASP.NET
ASP.NET’s support for Web controls provides an excellent way to package up commonly used behaviors and deploy them to other developers. But when should you build a control, and when should you just add the behavior to a Web form directly? This article examines this issue, and steps through the evolution of a control from behavior on a Web form to full-fledged control.
Article. Dec 17, 2003.

Utilizing Google’s Spell Check APIs on the Client and Server
Google.com provides developers a simple, but rich, set of APIs that you can use in your own application in the form of Web Services. In this article, the author demonstrates how to use Google’s Spell Check API, but unlike many of the articles on this subject, he shows how to utilize it not only on the server, but on the client, using Internet Explorer’s WebService Behavior.
Article. Dec 17, 2003.

Building a DataGrid with Add and Edit Features
In this article, the author explains adding and editing rows with DropDownLists using database and manual entries as data sources. The example is based on creating an expense entry and reporting system for an imaginary company.
Article. Dec 17, 2003.

ListControl SelectedItem Validator
This modification of RequiredField Validator for ASP.NET ListControl adapts it to work for lists (e.g., DropdownList) without the user typing text in a Textbox.
Article. Dec 17, 2003.

An Extensive Examination of Web Services: Part 5
This article, the 5th in the series, takes an in-depth look at the XML serialization process. With Web services, the behavior is performed for you automatically behind the scenes using the System.Xml.Serialization.XmlSerializer class. Read on to learn more about this class and the serialization and deserialization process that occurs each and every time a SOAP-formatted message is passed to or from a Web service.
Article. Dec 17, 2003.

Dan Appleman’s Exploring VB6 Volume 1: Essentials
This best-of collection covers a variety of topics, mostly at an intermediate to advanced level. Originally published in Pinnacle’s VB newsletter or Fawcette’s VBPJ (now VSM) for the VB6 audience, the articles have been updated and in some cases expanded for this collection. Where appropriate, a VB .NET supplement has been added to show how the problem would be addressed in VB .NET and/or C#. $7.95 USD
Book. Dec 17, 2003.

Using SpyWorks to Block Selected Applications from Loading
While you can use SpyWorks to prevent particular programs (such as File Explorer) from launching programs, there are so many different ways to launch applications that it becomes a Herculean task. This article details how to use SpyWorks to prevent certain programs from launching. The article, which includes sample code also illustrates how to detect when a program has started, and then close it.
Article. Dec 17, 2003.

ActiveUp release new free product – ActiveQ
ActiveQ is a free mail queuing service with extended task scheduling support written in 100% managed C#.NET. This service will allow you to send thousands of queued emails in a few minutes and also schedule mail for later delivery. Standard queuing is becoming required when sending a newsletter to thousands of subscribers.
Product Release. Dec 17, 2003.

Active Data Online PaypalShop is released: an ASP.NET e-commerce shop for PayPal
Features a shopping catalogue with unlimited sections and shelf space, a search engine, a database driven shopping cart, several pseudo A.I. recommender technologies to encourage and enhance the shopping experience (akin to those of Amazon), an item review and ratings system, an orders and shipment management system and seamless integration with PayPal, including the capacity to receive and intepret PayPal IPNs for automatic payment verification.
Product Release. Dec 17, 2003.


Open Source Bringing Mixed Feelings – Oracle Sees Drawbacks

While Oracle may praise Linux, they tread a little more lightly when it comes to other open source applications/projects. 🙂

Open Source Bringing Mixed Feelings Oracle Sees Drawbacks.

1,183 words
31 December 2003
Investor’s Business Daily
(c) 2003 Investor’s Business Daily

Q & A

Oracle Corp. is starting to face the same issue that Microsoft has been grappling with: Is open-source software a threat?

Oracle has supported open-source software on the operating systems side, most notably Linux, which competes with Microsoft’s Windows. But Oracle hasn’t supported open-source database software.

Open-source database providers, led by MySQL, have broken into the commodity low-end portion of Oracle’s market. Analysts say MySQL and others are becoming popular because, when combined with low-end servers, companies see cost savings.

Oracle’s Dave Dargo recently spoke with IBD about open source.

IBD: How does Oracle view the open-source software market?

Dargo: The open-source software market has become many things to many people. Due to the variety of methods and rules surrounding various open-source projects, it’s difficult to provide a single, consolidated definition of it.

Having said that, there are some general thoughts I’d like to share. Whether software is developed via an open-source or closed-source method, what’s most important is the value that software provides to an organization. It is only this value that can be judged by any company contemplating the deployment of any software product or solution.

Some believe that because the source code can be viewed for open-source software, it is easier or less expensive for a customer to support it. This may be true, depending on the investment a customer is willing to make. Our position is that it doesn’t make sense for customers to be in the business of supporting their own software at the source-code level. This essentially puts the customer in the software development business, and companies lose the leverage they get with widely adopted software.

On the other hand, open software does provide advantages for developers who want to learn about how software products are built. Developers can play with it, get inside of it and learn how to use it. Problems arise, however, if there is an expectation that each company will end up with unique versions of software through independent modification and maintenance strategies.

In the enterprise development community, it is not viable for every firm to modify the source code for its software products.

IBD: What’s wrong with modifying source code?

Dargo: When a company modifies source code and maintains its own software, it is essentially getting into the software business. Companies buy software from providers because they don’t want to be in the software business. At the end of the day, companies need to feel comfortable that there are professional development and support organizations standing behind the products they purchase so they can take advantage of large-scale deployments of any particular software product.

With that said, certain components of open source, like Linux, present great value to the commercial software sector. That’s why Oracle has embraced Linux. We provide direct fixes to open-source products and have developed relationships with partners like Red Hat and SuSE, who distribute those fixes. We want to add value to the Linux community, but we don’t want to be in the Linux distribution business.

What we see is that companies can get value from some open-source software as long as there’s a strong support organization behind the software. The fact that software was developed via an open-source methodology doesn’t, in itself, create unique value for the customer.

IBD: Why not?

Dargo: A simple analogy is a car. If you make heavy modifications to the engine, the car dealer won’t accept the responsibility for it if something goes wrong. Do you want to take 100% responsibility for maintaining your car?

Our model in the commercial software space is successful. Companies want to use standard components that other companies are using because they see the benefits of mass-market, widely adopted products. Whenever any industry has gone to standard building blocks, quality goes up and prices go down.

IBD: Why does Oracle support Linux?

Dargo: Oracle’s commitment to Linux began in 1998 when we released the first commercial database on Linux. At that time, we viewed Linux as one of many operating systems we supported. Today, our strategy is to create a platform that gives customers tremendous portability. We achieve that by continuing to support a variety of operating systems. We quickly realized that with Linux, we could provide a different level of support to our customers.

We created a Linux kernel development team here at Oracle that enables us to provide direct support for our customers who have deployed on Linux. This means that if one of our customers is running Oracle on Linux and they have a critical issue, we can get them back up and running much quicker.

Our business relationships with Red Hat and SuSE enables us to provide code-level support for not only our software, but for the operating system as well.

IBD: What is Oracle’s position on MySQL?

Dargo: MySQL does not compete with Oracle’s database. While some companies may have found complementary uses for MySQL, they still rely upon Oracle as their choice for dependable storage of their important data.

Oracle is used for critical functions such as online transaction processing, data warehousing and business intelligence, as well as other specialty applications like content management and multimedia. MySQL is typically used for non-critical functions like managing Web logs.

If a customer’s application meets the profile outlined above, and they want to take the risks associated with the limits of the technology and “ecosystem” around it, then perhaps MySQL is for them. If the application is more complex, larger, more mission-critical, then they should use Oracle. The comparison of Linux to Unix or Windows is not the same as what MySQL is to Oracle or other databases.

IBD: So how does an open-source player get traction in the market?

Dargo: The catalysts that make open-source software work are all a little bit different. One of the reasons that Linux has become popular in the enterprise customer base is because Oracle provides direct support for it.

The catalyst behind Linux is that you have two very substantial companies, Oracle and IBM, which provide worldwide support. What is the catalyst for open-source database software? Who is the large global support entity that will stand behind this? There needs to be a catalyst that drives it.

IBD: And Oracle won’t do that with open-source database software?

Dargo: We don’t expect to provide that support. We support Linux because, as an operating system, it enables the Oracle product suites and applications we provide customers. Open-source databases don’t.

IBD: Some analysts say databases are becoming a commodity.

Dargo: If they’re talking about just simple SQL engines (structured query language, the basic database standard), there are few differences among the top players. But Oracle’s products provide many more services and more sophistication than just simple SQL engines.




Eclipse and Java news items

Snippets from SD Times.

Eclipse has added a Visual Editor project, enabling the Java-based IDE to produce GUI client applications for the first time.  IBM made an additional donation of source code to the Eclipse project, offering the Visual Editor from WebSphere Studio App Developer Edition v5.0 to the open source group.  Though Eclipse itself is built on SWT GUI framework, the Visual Editor produces Swing/AWT applications. 
The Eclipse open source project is staffed by numerous paid IBM employees, and so the code handover from IBM to Eclipse was probably pretty simple. 
The latest downloads for the eclipse visual designer are at www.eclipse.org/vep .

Sun has declined to join the Eclipse board, instead announcing that it will double-down on its netBeans tools.  Eclipse and Sun had been in discussions that would have brought Sun into the eclipse community.

Iona, the former CORBA stalwart, is returning to its roots.  As CORBA declined, Iona jumped into the J2EE fray, back in 1999, launching its own J2EE-compliant app server, called the Orbix E2A Application Server.   But now Iona has announced that it is suspending R&D investment on that product, and instead will license the open-source J2EE app server from the JBoss Group.   Scott Devens, VP of Products at Iona, said, “We’re effectively outsourcing our J2EE engineering”. Devens acknowledged that the battle for J2EE app servers “is over.  We’d be fooling ourselves if we kept investing there.”     Instead, Iona will focus on CORBA and integration middleware that connects J2EE to CORBA and CORBA to other systems. 

Also, SDTimes’ editorial from Dec 15th discussed the release of J2EE v1.4, which Sun labelled “The Gold Standard for Web Services”.  The editors took issue with this, calling the spin “presumptuous”, and saying the release of J2EE v1.4 “will make J2EE more competitive with .NET.” and “In many ways, Sun and the Java Community Process are playing catch-up.”

WebSphere v6 preview

IBM Releases Peek of WebSphere 6
IBM is giving developers a glimpse of the latest code in its next application server version, WebSphere 6. 1/8/2004 InternetNews

What’s the news?
This is a preview of IBM’s next version of the WebSphere App Server.   The code name for WAS v6 is “Vela”.

So IBM has released the new version?
It’s a preview.  It appears to be intended to deliver J2EE v1.4 compliance, in a developer-ready app server.  It is not licensed for deployment.  It has not been called “a beta”, which implies it is not the actual Vela code base.   The bona fide v6 (“Vela”) release will include more features not exposed through this preview.

What does “J2EE v1.4 compliance” mean?
J2EE v1.4 included some java standards (JSRs) for web services, notably JSR-109.  That specification describes how web services ought to be supported in a J2EE-compliant application server.  Which APIs should be available, their semantics, which J2EE artifacts (like EJBs, servlets) should be exposable as web services, and so on.

But WebSphere App Server v5 already does web services?
That is true!   But WAS v5 was released before the finalization of J2EE v1.4, and so was not certified as being compliant with J2EE v1.4.   This preview release is a compliance release.  It is a way for IBM to say “look, we are staying current with the J2EE specification”.  Previously other vendors (like BEA) beat up IBM about this; and analysts had commented that IBM was slow to deliver support for the evolving Java specifications.  IBM is making sure that does not happen again. 

But if the preview release is not deployable, is compliance meaningful or valuable to customers?
That’s arguable. 

eWeek – Customer Defends MS Lower Cost

From eWeek – a customer provides solid quantification of the lower cost of Microsoft software & support –
Readers Size Up Microsoft’s Orphaned Software
George Ou, a network systems architect based in San Jose, Calif., pointed out that “most companies wouldn’t even support their old software as long as Microsoft has. The truth of the matter is,” Ou continued, “Windows XP cost me about $100 OEM CD, $60 when bundled with machine, and has served me well for over two years and will continue to serve me for a total of four years until the arrival of Longhorn. The model for Sun’s JDS is an automatic $150/year/user, and I don’t see how that is supposed to be cheaper. As for Red Hat’s support model, it just downright scares me. “My company with 1,500 people running all of MS’ latest software will call MS tech support eight times a year at a flat rate of $250 a call for a total of $2,000 per year to support Exchange, Active Directory and all other MS software issues combined. It’s $250 per incident even if MS has to spend one month fixing the problem. The Enterprise licensing plan with MS allows us to buy Windows 2003 standard for about $410 and Web Edition for about $220, and Enterprise Edition was something like $1,400. I’m no fan of paying $180 to $3,000 per year per seat. I like paying $200 to $400 upfront for the server and paying $250 per incident especially when we only have four to eight incidents a year. $2,000 of support fees works out nicely when you have 100 servers. What I won’t do is pay an average of $1,000 per server, times 100 servers, which works out to $100K!”
Ou added, “From my perspective, the sooner Win9x goes away, the better. If you want to keep it for home, just make sure you’re behind a router and/or have a free personal firewall installed. Win9x is about 6 years old, and NT4 is about 8 years old, and it’s time for support to end. He concluded, “Bottom line, I’m not complaining about the competition that Linux and the others bring because it only serves to keep MS honest with better prices and better innovation, but … Licensing 6 is beginning to look good when compared to Red Hat where they don’t get you on the licensing but they nail you many times over on the support. Everyone is in business to make money, but it just cracks me up to hear Larry Ellison and Scott McNealy lecture Microsoft on high prices. Red Hat isn’t far behind when it comes to milking enterprises for all those dollars.”

IBM Announces New SUSE LINUX-based Retail Offering for Point of Sale

IBM Announces New SUSE LINUX-based Retail Offering for Point of Sale

Raleigh, NC., 01/08/2004

New Solution Gives Retailers the Cost and Flexibility Benefits of Open-Source Linux and Reliability and Leadership of IBM POS

IBM today announced a new Linux-based IBM point-of-sale (POS) solution, based on SUSE LINUX, designed to enable retailers to reduce complexity and realize the low costs and other benefits of the open-source Linux operating system, along with the reliability, expertise and industry leadership of IBM in retail POS.

The new solution, IBM Retail Environment for SUSE LINUX, features a new SUSE LINUX-based product for retail — including a complete operating system and management solution for point of sale (POS) systems. Retailers can install the Linux operating system software they receive from SUSE and use this optimized Linux platform with IBM SurePOS, IBM eServer and IBM middleware to help provide retailers with a scalable, secure operating environment across the entire retail enterprise – all at a low total cost of ownership.

The new solution is designed to help deliver a standards-based, stable and secure infrastructure and a centralized management system for the retail market – helping bring reliability and manageability across remotely deployed POS systems. IBM plans for it to be available in the first half of 2004.

“Point of sale is the moment of truth in retailing, so retailers want to make sure they have the reliability and stability for which IBM is known in retail POS. At the same time, retailers clearly are seeing the benefits of open-source Linux,” said Tom Peterson, general manager, IBM Retail Store Solutions. “This new IBM offering is designed to allow retailers to continue receiving the stability and reliability of IBM POS, along with the benefits of Linux. With IBM providing the support around SUSE LINUX at the POS, retailers can focus on their core business rather than having to take over management of their POS operating systems.”

“The underlying SUSE LINUX technology fits perfectly with the technical needs of this retail solution — giving customers the stability, security and cost effectiveness of Linux,” said Juergen Geck, CTO, SUSE LINUX. “During the design and the piloting stages of this offering IBM and SUSE cooperated closely, combining IBM’s 30 years of experience as the industry leader in retail technology with SUSE’s more than 10 years of Linux leadership.”

BM Retail Environment for SUSE LINUX is a turn-key offering designed specifically for retailers. Combining IBM’s retail expertise and Linux commitment with SUSE’s Linux leadership, the two companies will be working together to meet and drive new requirements to benefit retailers.

The new offering is built on SUSE’s Linux distribution, which offers simplified installation and configuration, via four optimized Linux OS images for point-of-sale terminals, and an infrastructure for centralized management and distribution of the software. By being tailored for retail, the offering is designed to help reduce the complexity of the Linux operating system for retailers’ in-store POS solutions. In addition, the IBM offering provides a single point of contact for support in terms of operating system, drivers, and hardware.

The SUSE LINUX distribution can scale across multiple hardware platforms across the retailer’s entire enterprise, allowing retailers to consolidate their skilled IT resources and not have to devote resources toward defining, managing and providing ongoing support and maintenance themselves for a distinct POS operating system. Support and maintenance pricing, as well as the technical capabilities of the solution, are designed to scale for the retailer’s environment, thus supporting the concept of “retail on demand.” For example, the solution is designed to be able to be tailored from a small console-based system to a feature-rich Java and browser-capable system depending on the needs of the retailer.

The new solution also helps offer investment protection for retailers already running IBM POS systems, as it can be deployed on select existing IBM terminals. It should be particularly attractive for retailers who are currently using older DOS operating systems and need the ability to add new applications and services which require a new operating system platform.

About IBM

IBM, the world’s largest information technology company, provides the retail industry with a full range of e-business solutions, including: point-of-sale systems, other hardware and software technology, consulting focused on business transformation, IT strategy and planning, store operations improvement, and supply chain optimization, and with services, such as outsourcing, managed operations, systems integration, and application development and design. IBM has a list of retail customers in 100 countries worldwide that reads like a “Who’s Who” of retailing. For more information on IBM retail store solutions, please visit http://www.ibm.com/industries/retail/store/


Established in 1992, SUSE LINUX is one of the world’s leading providers of Linux software and services. With the largest dedicated Linux research and development team, SUSE delivers enterprise-ready software and services that harness the innovation, speed-to-market and independence of the open source community. A privately-held company based in Nuremberg, Germany, SUSE — together with global business partners — supports customers throughout the world.

SUSE is a registered trademark of SUSE LINUX. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners.